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Agenda-Setting Theory Aggressiveness. Theory Americanization of Media Assertiveness, and Verbal Aggressiveness Theory Communication Theory of I


Agenda-Setting Theory Aggressiveness. Theory Americanization of Media  Assertiveness, and Verbal Aggressiveness Theory   Communication Theory of I

 Agenda-Setting Theory Aggressiveness.

Theory Americanization of Media

 Assertiveness, and Verbal Aggressiveness Theory 

 Communication Theory of Identity 

 Attachment Theory 

 Black Feminist Epistemology 

 Cultural Theories of Health Communication 

 Family Communication Theories 

(Find the theories in the file attached)

COMMUNICATION THEORY

E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F

General Editors

Editorial Board

Stephen W. Littlejohn University of New Mexico

Karen A. Foss University of New Mexico

Editorial Board Brenda J. Allen

University of Colorado Denver

J. Kevin Barge Texas A&M University

Roger de la Garde Laval University

Lisa A. Flores University of Colorado Boulder

Vijai N. Giri Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur

Charlotte Kroløkke University of Southern Denmark

Mark P. Orbe Western Michigan University

James Taylor University of Montreal

Ingrid Volkmer University of Melbourne

COMMUNICATION THEORY

E N C Y C L O P E D I A O F

E D I T O R S

Stephen W. Littlejohn Karen A. Foss University of New Mexico

Copyright © 2009 by SAGE Publications, Inc.

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

For information:

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SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte. Ltd. 33 Pekin Street #02–01 Far East Square Singapore 048763

Printed in the United States of America.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Encyclopedia of communication theory / Stephen W. Littlejohn, Karen A. Foss, editors.

p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-4129-5937-7 (cloth)

1. Communication—Encyclopedias. 2. Information theory—Encyclopedias. 3. Linguistics—Encyclopedias. I. Littlejohn, Stephen W. II. Foss, Karen A. P87.5.E496 2009 302.203—dc22 2009002948

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

09 10 11 12 13 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Publisher: Rolf A. Janke Acquisitions Editor: Jim Brace-Thompson Editorial Assistant: Michele Thompson Developmental Editor: Yvette Pollastrini Reference Systems Manager: Leticia Gutierrez Reference Systems Coordinator: Laura Notton Production Editor: Kate Schroeder Copyeditors: Bonnie Freeman, Renee Willers Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd. Proofreaders: Kevin Gleason, Sandy Zilka Livingston Indexer: Joan Shapiro Cover Designer: Candice Harman Marketing Manager: Amberlyn McKay

Contents

List of Entries vii Reader’s Guide xiii

Theorists xxiii About the Editors and Editorial Board xliii

Contributors xlvii Introduction li Chronology lv

Entries

A 1 M 607 B 75 N 673 C 87 O 695 D 291 P 727 E 327 Q 817 F 371 R 823 G 421 S 867 H 463 T 955 I 487 U 973 J 573 V 981 K 581 W 1007 L 585 Y 1013

Selected Bibliography of Major Works by Topic 1015

Index 1055

vii

List of Entries

Accommodation Theory Accounts and Account Giving Action Assembly Theory Action-Implicative Discourse Analysis Activation Theory of Information Exposure Activity Theory Actor–Network Theory Advertising Theories Affect-Dependent Theory of Stimulus

Arrangements Afrocentricity Agency Agenda-Setting Theory Aggressiveness. See Argumentativeness,

Assertiveness, and Verbal Aggressiveness Theory

Americanization of Media Anxiety/Uncertainty Management Theory Archeology and Genealogy Argumentation Theories Argumentativeness, Assertiveness, and Verbal

Aggressiveness Theory Asian Communication Theory Attachment Theory Attitude Accessibility Theory. See Cognitive

Theories Attitude Theory Attribution Theory Audience Theories Autoethnography Autopoiesis. See Cybernetics Axiology

Balance Theory. See Attitude Theory; Co-Orientation Theory; Persuasion and Social Influence Theories

Bargaining. See Conflict Communication Theories; Negotiation Theory

Behaviorism. See Communication Skills Theories; Humanistic Perspective; Learning and Communication

Biological Approaches. See Communibiology Black Feminist Epistemology Bona Fide Group Theory Broadcasting Theories Buddhist Communication Theory

Campaign Communication Theories Chicana Feminism Chinese Harmony Theory Chronemics Citizenship Classical Rhetorical Theory Co-Cultural Theory Cognitive Dissonance Theory Cognitive Rules Model. See Cognitive Theories Cognitive Theories Collective Information Sampling Communibiology Communication Accommodation Theory. See

Accommodation Theory Communication Across the Life Span Communication and Language Acquisition and

Development Communication Apprehension. See Social and

Communicative Anxiety Communication Goal Theories Communication in Later Life Communication Skills Theories Communication Theory of Identity Communicative Action Theory Community Community of Practice Competence Theories Complexity and Communication Compliance Gaining Strategies

viii List of Entries

Complicity Theory Comprehensive Model of Information Seeking.

See Uncertainty Management Theories Computer-Mediated Communication Conflict Communication Theories Confucian Communication Theory Consequentiality of Communication Consistency Theories. See Attitude Theory;

Cognitive Dissonance Theory; Co-Orientation Theory; Persuasion and Social Influence Theories

Constitutive View of Communication Construction-Integration Model. See Cognitive

Theories Constructivism Contextual Theory of Interethnic

Communication Convergence Theory Conversational Constraints Theory Conversation Analysis Coordinated Management of Meaning Co-Orientation Theory Corporate Campaign Theories Corporate Colonization Theory Correspondence Theory. See Language and

Communication; Meaning Theories; Metatheory

Creativity in Groups Critical Communication Pedagogy Critical Constructivism Critical Cultural Studies. See Cultural Studies Critical Discourse Analysis Critical Ethnography Critical Organizational Communication Critical Race Theory Critical Rhetoric Critical Theory Cross-Cultural Adaptation Theory Cross-Cultural Communication Cross-Cultural Decision Making Cultivation Theory Cultural Contracts Theory Cultural Identity Theory Cultural Indicators Cultural Performance Theory Cultural Studies Cultural Theories of Health Communication Cultural Types Theories Culture and Communication Culture Industries. See Cultural Studies;

Postmodern Theory Cybernetics

Daoism. See Taoist Communication Theory Deception Detection Deconstruction Definitions of Communication Deliberative Democratic Theories Dependency Theories. See Asian Communication

Theory; Digital Divide; Flow and Contra- Flow; Free Flow Doctrine; Informatization; International Communication Theories; International Development Theories; New World Information and Communication Order (NWICO); Uses, Gratifications, and Dependency

Dialogue Theories Diaspora Diffusion of Innovations Digital Cultures Digital Divide Diplomacy. See Media Diplomacy Discourse Theory and Analysis Documentary Film Theories Dramatism and Dramatistic Pentad Dual-Level Connectionist Models of Group

Cognition and Social Influence Dyadic Power Theory Dynamic Memory Model. See Cognitive Theories

Effective Intercultural Workgroup Communication Theory

Elaborated and Restricted Codes Elaboration Likelihood Theory Emotion and Communication Empathy Empiricism Entertainment–Education Environmental Communication Theories Epistemology Ethics Theories Ethnography of Communication Ethnomethodology Evaluating Communication Theory Existentialism Expectancy Violations Theory Extended Parallel Process Model. See Campaign

Communication Theories; Persuasion and Social Influence Theories

Face Negotiation Theory Facework Theories Family and Marital Schemas and Types Family Communication Theories Fans, Fandom, and Fan Studies

ixList of Entries

Feedback. See Cybernetics Feminist Communication Theories Feminist Rhetorical Criticism Feminist Standpoint Theory Field Theory of Conflict Film Theories Flow and Contra-Flow Framing Theory Frankfurt School Free Flow Doctrine French Feminism Functional Group Communication Theory

Game Theory. See Conflict Communication Theories; Negotiation Theory

Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Theories

Gender and Biology Gender and Media Genderlect Theory Gender Role Theory Gender Schema Theory General Semantics Genre Theory Globalization Theories Grounded Theory Group and Organizational Structuration Theory Group Communication Theories Groupthink

Haptics. See Nonverbal Communication Theories Hawaiian Ho‘oponopono Theory Health Communication Theories Hermeneutics Heuristic-Systematic Model Hierarchy of Effects Models. See Advertising

Theories Hindu Communication Theory Humanistic Perspective Humorous Communication Theory Hybridity

I and Thou Identification Identity Management Theory. See Identity

Theories Identity Negotiation Theory. See Identity

Theories Identity Theories Ideological Rhetoric Ideology Immediacy

Impression Formation Impression Management Indian Rasa Theory Information Processing. See Cognitive Theories Information Theory Informatization Inoculation Theory Inquiry Processes Institutional Theories of Organizational

Communication Integrated Threat Theory. See Conflict

Communication Theories Interaction Adaptation Theory Interaction Involvement Interaction Process Analysis Intercultural Communication Competence Intercultural Communication Theories International Communication Theories International Development Theories Interpersonal Communication Theories Interpersonal Deception Theory Interpersonal Power. See Power, Interpersonal Interpretive Communities Theory Interpretive Theory Interracial Communication Intersectionality Intrapersonal Communication Theories Invitational Rhetoric Issues Life-Cycle Theory. See Corporate

Campaign Theories

Japanese Kuuki Theory Journalism and Theories of the Press

Kinesics Knowledge Gap Theory. See Public Opinion

Theories

Language Acquisition and Development. See Communication and Language Acquisition and Development

Language and Communication Latino Perspectives Leadership Theories Learning and Communication Legal Communication Theories Legitimation Gap Theory. See Corporate

Campaign Theories Linguistic Relativity

Marxist Theory Materiality of Discourse

x List of Entries

Mathematical Theory of Communication Meaning Theories Media and Mass Communication Theories Media Democracy Media Diplomacy Media Ecology. See Medium Theory Media Effects Theories Media Equation Theory Media Ethics Theories Media Richness Theory Media Sovereignty Medium Theory Membership Categorization Analysis (MCA) Metacommunication Metaphor Metatheory Models of Communication. See Constitutive

View of Communication Modernism in Communication Theory Montreal School. See Constitutive View of

Communication; Organizational Co-Orientation Theory

Moral Conflict. See Conflict Communication Theories

Motivated Information Management Theory Multiple Intelligences. See Learning and

Communication Muted Group Theory Myth and Mythic Criticism

Narrative and Narratology Narrative Transparency Model. See International

Communication Theories Negotiation Theory Neocolonialism Network Society Network Theory. See Actor–Network Theory;

Organizational Communication Theories New Media Theory New Rhetoric. See Argumentation Theories New World Information and Communication

Order (NWICO) Nonverbal Communication Theories

Oculesics. See Nonverbal Communication Theories

Ontology Ordinary Democracy Organizational Communication Theories Organizational Control Theory

Organizational Co-Orientation Theory Organizational Culture Organizational Identity Theory Organizational List Theory Organizational Socialization and Assimilation Organizing, Process of

Palo Alto Group Paralanguage Path-Goal Theory. See Leadership Theories Peace Theories Performance Ethnography Performance Theories Performative Writing Persuasion and Social Influence Theories Phenomenology Philosophy of Communication Planned Behavior, Theory of. See Campaign

Communication Theories; Persuasion and Social Influence Theories; Reasoned Action Theory

Planning Theory. See Cognitive Theories; Communication Goal Theories

Politeness Theory Political Communication Theories Popular Culture Theories Positioning Theory Positivism. See Postpositivism Postcolonial Feminism Postcolonial Theory Postmodern Theory Postpositivism Poststructuralism Power, Interpersonal Power and Power Relations Practical Theory Pragma-Dialectics. See Argumentation

Theories Pragmatics Presence Theory Privacy Management Theory Privilege Problematic Integration Theory Process of Communication Propaganda Theory Proxemics Public Opinion Theories Public Sphere

Queer Theory

xiList of Entries

Racial Formation Theory Realism and the Received View Reasoned Action Theory Reception Theories. See Audience Theories;

International Communication Theories; Interpretive Communities Theory; Sense-Making

Relational Communication Theory Relational Control Theory Relational Development Relational Dialectics Relational Framing Theory. See Cognitive

Theories Relational Maintenance Theories Relational Order Theory. See Conflict

Communication Theories Relational Turbulence Model. See Uncertainty

Management Theories Relational Uncertainty Religious Communication Theories Renaissance Rhetorical Theory. See Rhetorical

Theory Reversal Theory. See Advertising Theories Rhetorical Sensitivity Rhetorical Theory Rogerian Dialogue Theory Rules Theories

Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis. See Linguistic Relativity Scientific Approach Self. See Humanistic Perspective; Identity

Theories; Rogerian Dialogue Theory; Symbolic Interactionism

Self-Categorization Theory Self-Disclosure Semiotics and Semiology Sense-Making Sign. See Meaning Theories; Semiotics and

Semiology Silence, Silences, and Silencing Simulation and Media Skill, Communication. See Competence Theories;

Communication Skills Theories; Intercultural Communication Competence; Cognitive Theories

Social Action Media Studies Social and Communicative Anxiety Social Construction of Reality Social Exchange Theory Social Identity Theory

Social Information Processing Theory Social Interaction Theories Social Judgment Theory Social Justice Social Learning Theory. See Entertainment–

Education; Learning and Communication Social Penetration Theory Social Support Spectatorship Speech Accommodation Theory. See

Accommodation Theory Speech Act Theory Speech Codes Theory Speech Theory of Human Communication. See

Communication and Language Acquisition and Development

Spiral Models of Media Effects Spiral of Silence Stakeholder Theory Standpoint Theory. See Feminist Standpoint

Theory Stigma Communication Stories and Storytelling Structuralism. See Poststructuralism Structuration Theory Style, Communicator Subliminal Communication Symbol. See Meaning Theories; Semiotics and

Semiology Symbolic Convergence Theory Symbolic Interactionism Symbolic-Interpretive Perspective on Groups System Theory

Taoist Communication Theory Technology of Communication. See Computer-

Mediated Communication; New Media Theory

Theory Theory of Reasoned Action. See Reasoned

Action Theory Time. See Chronemics Traditions of Communication Theory Trait Theory Transactional View. See Constitutive View of

Communication Transculturation Translation Theory. See Actor–Network

Theory Two-Step and Multi-Step Flow

xii List of Entries

Uncertainty Management Theories Uncertainty Reduction Theory Unobtrusive Control. See Organizational Control

Theory Uses, Gratifications, and Dependency

Validity and Reliability Values Studies: History and Concepts Values Theory: Sociocultural Dimensions and

Frameworks Variable Analytic Tradition Vernacular Discourse

Violence and Nonviolence in Media Studies Visual Communication Theories Vocalics. See Paralanguage

Whiteness Theory Whorfian Hypothesis. See Linguistic

Relativity Womanism

Yale Communication and Attitude Change Program. See Attitude Theory; Persuasion and Social Influence Theories

xiii

Reader’s Guide

The Reader’s Guide is provided to assist readers in locating articles on related topics. It classifies entries into 17 general topical categories:

Applications and Contexts Critical Orientations Cultural Orientations Cybernetic and Systems Orientations Feminist Orientations Group and Organizational Concepts Information, Media, and Communication Technology International and Global Concepts Interpersonal Concepts Non-Western Orientations Paradigms, Traditions, and Schools Philosophical Orientations Psycho-Cognitive Orientations Rhetorical Orientations Semiotic, Linguistic, and Discursive Orientations Social-Interactional Orientations Theory, Metatheory, Methodology, and Inquiry

Entries may be listed under more than one topic.

Applications and Contexts

Advertising Theories Argumentation Theories Broadcasting Theories Campaign Communication Theories Communication Across the Life Span Communication in Later Life Communication Skills Theories Community Competence Theories Computer-Mediated Communication Conflict Communication Theories Corporate Campaign Theories Cultivation Theory Cultural Theories of Health Communication Deliberative Democratic Theories Entertainment–Education

Environmental Communication Theories Ethics Theories Family and Marital Schemas and Types Family Communication Theories Film Theories Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Theories Globalization Theories Group Communication Theories Groupthink Health Communication Theories Humorous Communication Theory Informatization Intercultural Communication Theories International Communication Theories International Development Theories Journalism and Theories of the Press Learning and Communication

xiv Reader’s Guide

Legal Communication Theories Media and Mass Communication Theories Medium Theory Negotiation Theory Ordinary Democracy Organizational Communication Theories Political Communication Theories Religious Communication Theories Visual Communication Theories

Critical Orientations

Action-Implicative Discourse Analysis Activity Theory Americanization of Media Archeology and Genealogy Autoethnography Black Feminist Epistemology Chicana Feminism Citizenship Co-Cultural Theory Complexity and Communication Critical Communication Pedagogy Critical Constructivism Critical Discourse Analysis Critical Ethnography Critical Organizational Communication Critical Race Theory Critical Rhetoric Critical Theory Cultural Studies Deconstruction Diaspora Digital Divide Discourse Theory and Analysis Existentialism Feminist Communication Theories Feminist Rhetorical Criticism Feminist Standpoint Theory Flow and Contra-Flow Frankfurt School French Feminism Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Theories Gender and Media Genderlect Theory Hermeneutics Hybridity Identity Theories Ideological Rhetoric Ideology

Interracial Communication Intersectionality Marxist Theory Materiality of Discourse Media Sovereignty Medium Theory Muted Group Theory Neocolonialism New Media Theory Positioning Theory Postcolonial Feminism Postcolonial Theory Postmodern Theory Poststructuralism Power and Power Relations Privilege Propaganda Theory Public Sphere Queer Theory Racial Formation Theory Silence, Silences, and Silencing Social Justice Spectatorship Structuration Theory Transculturation Vernacular Discourse Whiteness Theory Womanism

Cultural Orientations

Afrocentricity Asian Communication Theory Black Feminist Epistemology Buddhist Communication Theory Chicana Feminism Chinese Harmony Theory Chronemics Co-Cultural Theory Community Community of Practice Confucian Communication Theory Contextual Theory of Interethnic

Communication Critical Ethnography Critical Race Theory Cross-Cultural Adaptation Theory Cultivation Theory Cultural Contracts Theory Cultural Performance Theory

xvReader’s Guide

Cultural Studies Cultural Theories of Health Communication Cultural Types Theories Culture and Communication Diaspora Effective Intercultural Workgroup

Communication Theory Ethnography of Communication Ethnomethodology Face Negotiation Theory Fans, Fandom, and Fan Studies Feminist Standpoint Theory Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Theories Genderlect Theory Gender Role Theory Hindu Communication Theory Hybridity Identity Theories Indian Rasa Theory Informatization Intercultural Communication Competence Intercultural Communication Theories Interpretive Theory Interracial Communication Intersectionality Japanese Kuuki Theory Latino Perspectives Linguistic Relativity Medium Theory Membership Categorization Analysis (MCA) Myth and Mythic Criticism Neocolonialism Organizational Culture Performance Ethnography Performance Theories Popular Culture Theories Postcolonial Theory Privilege Proxemics Racial Formation Theory Religious Communication Theories Silence, Silences, and Silencing Social Identity Theory Social Justice Speech Codes Theory Taoist Communication Theory Transculturation Values Theory: Sociocultural Dimensions and

Frameworks Vernacular Discourse

Whiteness Theory Womanism

Cybernetic and Systems Orientations

Actor–Network Theory Autoethnography Complexity and Communication Convergence Theory Coordinated Management of Meaning Co-Orientation Theory Cybernetics Dual-Level Connectionist Models of Group

Cognition and Social Influence Functional Group

Communication Theory Information Theory Mathematical Theory of

Communication Metacommunication Organizational Co-Orientation Theory Organizing, Process of Palo Alto Group Pragmatics Relational Control Theory Relational Dialectics Stakeholder Theory Structuration Theory System Theory

Feminist Orientations

Black Feminist Epistemology Chicana Feminism Feminist Communication Theories Feminist Rhetorical Criticism Feminist Standpoint Theory French Feminism Gender and Media Genderlect Theory Gender Role Theory Gender Schema Theory Intersectionality Invitational Rhetoric Muted Group Theory Postcolonial Feminism Power and Power Relations Queer Theory Womanism

xvi Reader’s Guide

Group and Organizational Concepts

Actor–Network Theory Bona Fide Group Theory Campaign Communication Theories Collective Information Sampling Community Community of Practice Co-Orientation Theory Corporate Campaign Theories Creativity in Groups Critical Organizational Communication Cross-Cultural Decision Making Dual-Level Connectionist Models of Group

Cognition and Social Influence Effective Intercultural Workgroup

Communication Theory Field Theory of Conflict Functional Group Communication Theory Group Communication Theories Groupthink Health Communication Theories Institutional Theories of Organizational

Communication Interaction Process Analysis Leadership Theories Media Richness Theory Membership Categorization Analysis (MCA) Organizational Communication Theories Organizational Control Theory Organizational Co-Orientation Theory Organizational Culture Organizational Identity Theory Organizational Socialization and Assimilation Organizing, Process of Sense-Making Social Identity Theory Stakeholder Theory Symbolic-Interpretive Perspective on Groups

Information, Media, and Communication Technology

Activation Theory of Information Exposure Advertising Theories Affect-Dependent Theory of Stimulus

Arrangements Agenda-Setting Theory Americanization of Media Audience Theories Broadcasting Theories

Campaign Communication Theories Communication in Later Life Computer-Mediated Communication Corporate Campaign Theories Critical Theory Cultivation Theory Cultural Studies Diaspora Diffusion of Innovations Digital Divide Discourse Theory and Analysis Documentary Film Theories Entertainment–Education Environmental Communication Theories Expectancy Violations Theory Fans, Fandom, and Fan Studies Film Theories Flow and Contra-Flow Framing Theory Frankfurt School Gender and Media Globalization Theories Health Communication Theories Information Theory Informatization International Development Theories Interpretive Communities Theory Journalism and Theories of the Press Marxist Theory Materiality of Discourse Media and Mass Communication Theories Media Democracy Media Diplomacy Media Effects Theories Media Equation Theory Media Ethics Theories Media Richness Theory Media Sovereignty Medium Theory Membership Categorization Analysis (MCA) Motivated Information Management Theory Neocolonialism Network Society New Media Theory New World Information and Communication

Order (NWICO) Political Communication Theories Popular Culture Theories Postcolonial Theory Presence Theory

xviiReader’s Guide

Propaganda Theory Public Opinion Theories Public Sphere Social Action Media Studies Social Identity Theory Social Information Processing Theory Spectatorship Spiral Models of Media Effects Spiral of Silence Two-Step and Multi-Step Flow Uses, Gratifications, and Dependency Violence and Nonviolence

in Media

International and Global Concepts

Culture and Communication Diaspora Flow and Contra-Flow Free Flow Doctrine Globalization Theories Intercultural Communication Theories International Development Theories Media Diplomacy Media Sovereignty Neocolonialism New World Information and Communication

Order (NWICO) Peace Theories Postcolonial Theory

Interpersonal Concepts

Accommodation Theory Accounts and Account Giving Action Assembly Theory Action-Implicative Discourse Analysis Agency Anxiety/Uncertainty Management Theory Argumentativeness, Assertiveness, and Verbal

Aggressiveness Theory Attachment Theory Attribution Theory Chronemics Cognitive Dissonance Theory Collective Information Sampling Communibiology Communication Goal Theories Communication in Later Life Communication Skills Theories

Communication Theory of Identity Competence Theories Compliance Gaining Strategies Conflict Communication Theories Constructivism Conversational Constraints Theory Conversation Analysis Coordinated Management of Meaning Cross-Cultural Adaptation Theory Cultural Contracts Theory Deception Detection Dialogue Theories Diffusion of Innovations Discourse Theory and Analysis Dyadic Power Theory Elaboration Likelihood Theory Emotion and Communication Empathy Ethnomethodology Expectancy Violations Theory Face Negotiation Theory Facework Theories Family and Marital Schemas and Types Family Communication Theories Field Theory of Conflict Genderlect Theory General Semantics Grounded Theory Hawaiian Ho‘oponopono Theory Health Communication Theories Heuristic-Systematic Model I and Thou Immediacy Impression Formation Impression Management Inoculation Theory Interaction Adaptation Theory Interaction Involvement Intercultural Communication Competence Interpersonal Communication Theories Interpersonal Deception Theory Invitational Rhetoric Kinesics Learning and Communication Metacommunication Motivated Information Management Theory Negotiation Theory Nonverbal Communication Theories Palo Alto Group Paralanguage

xviii Reader’s Guide

Persuasion and Social Influence Theories Politeness Theory Power, Interpersonal Privacy Management Theory Problematic Integration Theory Proxemics Reasoned Action Theory Relational Control Theory Relational Development Relational Dialectics Relational Maintenance Theory Rhetorical Sensitivity Rogerian Dialogue Theory Rules Theories Self-Categorization Theory Self-Disclosure Sense-Making Social and Communicative Anxiety Social Construction of Reality Social Exchange Theory Social Information Processing Theory Social Interaction Theories Social Judgment Theory Social Penetration Theory Social Support Speech Act Theory Stigma Communication Stories and Storytelling Style, Communicator Symbolic Convergence Theory Symbolic Interactionism Trait Theory Two-Step and Multi-Step Flow Uncertainty Management Theories Uncertainty Reduction Theory

Non-Western Orientations

Afrocentricity Asian Communication Theory Confucian Communication Theory Hawaiian Ho‘oponopono Theory Hindu Communication Theory Indian Rasa Theory Informatization Japanese Kuuki Theory Taoist Communication Theory

Paradigms, Traditions, and Schools

Afrocentricity Asian Communication Theory Buddhist Communication Theory Cognitive Theories Communibiology Communication Skills Theories Constitutive View of Communication Critical Theory Empiricism Feminist Communication Theories Humanistic Perspective Modernism in Communication Theory Philosophy of Communication Postmodern Theory Postpositivism Poststructuralism Pragmatics Rules Theories Scientific Approach Social Interaction Theories System Theory Traditions of Communication Theory Variable Analytic Tradition

Philosophical Orientations

Axiology Epistemology Ethics Theories Existentialism Meaning Theories Metatheory Ontology Phenomenology Philosophy of Communication Pragmatics Realism and the Received View Values Studies: History and Concepts

Psycho-Cognitive Orientations

Accommodation Theory Action Assembly Theory Activation Theory of Information Exposure Activity Theory

xixReader’s Guide

Affect-Dependent Theory of Stimulus Arrangements

Agency Anxiety/Uncertainty Management Theory Argumentativeness, Assertiveness, and Verbal

Aggressiveness Theory Attachment Theory Attitude Theory Attribution Theory Audience Theories Chronemics Cognitive Dissonance Theory Cognitive Theories Communibiology Communication Across the Life Span Communication and Language Acquisition and

Development Communication in Later Life Competence Theories Compliance Gaining Strategies Constructivism Co-Orientation Theory Cross-Cultural Adaptation Theory Cultivation Theory Diffusion of Innovations Dual-Level Connectionist Models of Group

Cognition and Social Influence Dyadic Power Theory Elaboration Likelihood Theory Emotion and Communication Empathy Expectancy Violations Theory Face Negotiation Theory Family and Marital Schemas and Types Field Theory of Conflict Gender and Biology Gender Schema Theory General Semantics Heuristic-Systematic Model Humorous Communication Theory Immediacy Impression Formation Inoculation Theory Interaction Adaptation Theory Interaction Involvement Interaction Process Analysis Intercultural Communication Competence

Inter

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