Write a script for a 30-second radio commercial designed for a single voice. Read your script allowed and time it to insure the proper length. The product you are advertising


Write a script for a 30-second radio commercial designed for a single voice.  Read your script allowed and time it to insure the proper length. The product you are advertising

  1. Write a script for a 30-second radio commercial designed for a single voice.  Read your script allowed and time it to insure the proper length.
  2. The product you are advertising is Chipotle.
  3. As the client, I am requesting an ad that appeals to the audience’s emotions. I DO NOT want an ad that just talks about the features of restaurant or the cost of their menu items. The ad should communicate, on an emotional level, why this business and their products are meaningful to the target audience.
  4. The target audience for this ad is college students, most of which are 18-24 years old.
  5. After you present your script, add a paragraph that summarizes why you chose this particular creative approach.
  6. Upload this script as a Word or .pdf document

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What do the quilts symbolize to the narrator and her daughter, Maggie? * What is the importance of the TV-show dream? * What characteristics does Dee possess that show how unethi


What do the quilts symbolize to the narrator and her daughter, Maggie? * What is the importance of the TV-show dream? * What characteristics does Dee possess that show how unethi

 

Please respond to the following to Alice Walker’s “Everyday Use”:

* What do the quilts symbolize to the narrator and her daughter, Maggie?

* What is the importance of the TV-show dream?

* What characteristics does Dee possess that show how unethical modernity can be?

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To explore media effects research that examines the potential positive impact of media consumption. 1. Read the ‘Media Literacy Case Study’ on pages 450-451 in your textbook for


To explore media effects research that examines the potential positive impact of media consumption. 1.  Read the ‘Media Literacy Case Study’ on pages 450-451 in your textbook for

Goal:  To explore media effects research that examines the potential positive impact of media consumption.

1.  Read the “Media Literacy Case Study” on pages 450-451 in your textbook for an overview of the Netflix show “13 Reasons Why”

2.  Read this research report from the Center for Scholars and Storytellers at UCLA:  Teen Mental Health Report.pdf

3.  Write a 500 – 750 word response to this research in which you:

  • Describe what you thought was the most interesting finding from the study.
  • Discuss any criticisms you have of their research/findings
  • Elaborate on what other questions this group could attempt to answer in future research on media, teens and mental health.

Authors: Jordan A. Levinson, MA

Elise M. Tsai, BA

Laurel Felt, PhD

Ellen Wartella, PhD

and Yalda T. Uhls, PhD

Based on experimental research to be

published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (JMIR) summer, 2021, by

Yalda T. Uhls, PhD

Laurel Felt, PhD

Ellen Wartella, PhD

and Andrew Sanders, MA

and

a social listening study conducted by

MarketCast, LLC in 2019

Funders:

Seeking Support:

Evaluating the Impact of

on Adolescent Mental Health 13 Reasons Why

1

Content warning:

This report includes discussion of

mental health struggles and suicide.

Shows targeted at teenagers

portraying tough topics have the

potential to support them in a

time when the mental health crisis

is more pronounced than ever.

What if we can harness the power of stories to help young people searching for mental health information and support?

Media is such a powerful force in the lives of children and teens. Creating content that

normalizes and encourages seeking help from trusted adults and health professionals can

have a profound impact in helping young people struggling with mental health concerns.

As a pediatrician, I know that the entertainment industry reaches far more kids and

families than I do. What a benefit it would be to help families open critical conversations

and empower them to connect with needed resources to feel better and be healthy.

Indirectly, by destigmatizing mental health issues, modeling help-seeking behavior,

and supporting vulnerable youth so they feel less alone.

Directly, by providing resources.

At the Center for Scholars & Storytellers (CSS), we believe storytelling can play a

distinct role in meeting the challenges of the mental health crisis in two ways:

Nusheen Ameenuddin, MD, MPH, MPA, FAAP Pediatrician at Mayo Clinic and Chair of the AAP Council on

Communications and Media

1

45% of college students perceive stigma around receiving mental health

treatment.

Nearly one in three adolescents ages 13 to 18 will experience

an anxiety disorder.

1

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Throughout the COVID-19

pandemic, youth ages 11 to 17 have been more likely

than any other age group to report moderate-to-severe

anxiety and depression symptoms.

1

2

3

Note from our founder

Metholodology

Resources

Project description

Key findings

Limitations

Findings

Note from our donor

Acknowledgments

p. 2

p. 4

p. 6

p. 13

p. 15

p. 16

p. 8

p. 3

p. 18

References p. 17

Key takeaways p. 7

1

The Center for Scholars & Storytellers (CSS) offers evidence-based practices to support industry thought leaders striving to create content that maximizes the benefits of storytelling. Even before COVID-19, teen suicide rates were rising, along with reported symptoms of anxiety and depression. Since the pandemic hit, the prevalence of mental health challenges increased across every age group, with young people being hit hardest. Research shows that adolescence is a period of heightened risk for developing psychopathology. In addition, youth are consuming unprecedented levels of media. Taken together, our work at CSS is more critical than ever.

Global franchises reach teens at scale. In the past few years, CSS ran several studies examining Netflix’s 13 Reasons Why (13RW), a series that drew worldwide acclaim and condemnation. Given the reach of this highly successful franchise, we felt it was important to study exactly how it impacted youth, especially with respect to mental health.

Other research examined the impact of the show well after its release. Our study asked adolescents to watch Season 3 in real time during its initial broadcast run.

Our findings should have implications for the diverse stakeholders we serve, including entertainment content creators, public health experts, parents, and adolescents. Our hope is that by working together—well in advance of release—stakeholders can work towards harnessing the positive potential of these kinds of global franchises.

In a world where

streaming services

means content is

always available, shows

portraying mental

health issues have a

powerful opportunity to

provide support.

A Note from our Founder

2

Dr. Yalda T. Uhls, PhD Founding Director, CSS

Our results demonstrate that these kinds of challenging, realistic stories seem to inspire youth to talk and learn about mental health issues.

1

The Technology and Adolescent Mental Wellness (TAM) program was funded to advance our understanding of the role of technology and adolescent mental well- being. We achieve this through a collaboration with researchers, industry and organizational leaders, and youth themselves. Our three goals of the program include:

The project described in this report represents one of the shining stars of our funded projects in its innovation and significance. 13 Reasons Why is a well-known and recognized show among adolescents and their parents. As an adolescent medicine provider, we’ve heard about this show from our patients and discussions about whether to recommend or restrict adolescent access to this show are rampant across pediatric providers. Too often, these decisions and recommendations lack evidence or investigation. The social listening study that is part of the source material for this report sought to understand the conversations individuals were having about the topics represented in this show, and the experimental investigation used a real- time assessment of the impact of the show on mental health. This study provides much-needed evidence to advance the conversation about how a popular Netflix show can impact adolescent mental health.

A Note from our Donor

3

Dr. Megan Moreno, MD, MSEd, MPH Technology and Adolescent Media (TAM) Program Director

1)Provide funding for research projects that focus on the foundational question of how technology can improve the mental well-being of adolescents.

2) Dissemination of the findings from these projects to aid implementation strategies, including ways to leverage traditional research publication as well as

open-access and public-facing approaches.

3)Promote community and ongoing collaboration by building a community and collaborative platform around TAM for researchers, clinical providers,

educators, nonprofit organizations, the motion picture industry, and policy and

philanthropic organizations where best practices and new knowledge can be

shared while developing and nurturing a Youth Advisory Board.

1

Outline the conversation

surrounding on social media.

Provide data on some of the

positive and negative outcomes

from watching this show.

Identify some of the impacts the

show had on information seeking

and conversations around mental

health.

Suggest ways industry can support

adolescent mental health.

This report will:

13RW

CSS seeks to understand whether—and how—stories can support youth as they pursue mental wellness. Through our continuing research program, we hope to create tools that engage users around ancillary content related to key issues in storylines. This also has tremendous potential for marketers who want to leverage the scale and impact of social media to support adolescents’ well-being.

PROJECT DESCRIPTION

4

The Center for Scholars & Storytellers

(CSS) conducted two studies to

investigate how the popular, teen-

targeted show,

may affect adolescent mental health.

13 Reasons Why,

Findings by MarketCast, LLC.

Study 1:

A commissioned social listening study that examined the social conversation on Twitter (in 1,291,334 total mentions of key

topics) one week after release for Seasons

1 through 3.

Study 2:

An experimental study with 157 teens from across the country that is to be

published in The Journal of Medical Internet Research in the summer of 2021. Within this study, approximately half of our

participants watched Season 3 of 13RW while the other half did not. Before and

after having watched Season 3, or not having done so, all participants completed

a survey asking about their conversations

in the previous 30 days and whether the

show inspired them to seek out

information about mental health issues.

a

b

b For more information about the methodologies of both studies, see pages 14-15.

a

1

Whereas the first season shed light on the lead character’s death by suicide and the second season unpacked legal accountability for her death, the third season centered on sexual assault, bullying, and

recovery. It also opened space for survivors to speak up and demand justice. The season arc suggested that masculine role pressure might sanction teen violence.

Summary of 13 RW, Season 3

PROJECT DESCRIPTION

The first season of 13RW launched with huge fanfare.

But within a few weeks, the

backlash was relentless.

Ultimately, the first season

inspired record levels of

responses on Twitter, and

over 600,000 global news

reports, dozens of editorials

from experts and professional

organizations, and dozens of

scientific studies.

5

PROJECT DESCRIPTION

Credit: Instagram @13reasonswhy

1

A study found that a fictional storyline was more

effective at changing behavior than a

“documentary” with statistics and experts. In other

words, accurate information combined with emotional storytelling is a powerful mechanism for shifting behavior and attitudes!

Given the heightened risk of developing mental

health issues in adolescence, normalizing discussions about mental health can support destigmatizing help-seeking.

Why does this matter?

Of the teens who watched Season 3 of 13RW, 88% spoke about mental health topics.

During the first week after the launch of Season

1, the avalanche of social conversation on

Twitter was primarily positive.

Talking about it

Nearly every teen (92%) who watched Season 3

of 13RW looked for information on mental health topics.

Social engagement was particularly high when

talent used their platform to post helpline

resources.

Searching for answers

88 discussed mental

health topics

%

92 mental health information

6

4

5

% looked for

KEY FINDINGS

1

Because content drives conversations and information seeking,

Educational companion content to a show might include: Conversational toolkits developed by public health experts that are

designed to support teens in talking with friends and, separately,

with parents.

These should be shared beyond a “resource” webpage.

Reconsider investment in PSAs and prioritize creating content that engages modern teens in more meaningful ways.

studios should create resources that amplify and support such outcomes.

3. Utilize research and resources in content creation

KEY TAKEAWAYS

Where Can We Go From Here:

Three Suggestions for the Entertainment Industry

When all stakeholders (e.g. industry, education, and public health officials) work

together—well in advance of release—they can better harness the content’s

potential to support adolescent wellness.

7

2. Provide credible, engaging resources with accurate information

1. Support adolescents’ narrative-inspired conversations

For more resources, visit: www.scholarsandstorytellers.com/teen-mental-health-report

www.scholarsandstorytellers.com/teen-mental-health-report-resources

In developing show specific resource pages and character focused

videos that the cast can then share on social media, expert information

can be curated to help support the fans needs, and, this study

concludes, it is energy well spent as viewers are very likely to use it.

6,7

This is a worthy

effort for content

creators for reasons

that are not simply

performative.

Dr. Jessica Gold MD, MS Assistant Professor and Director of Wellness, Engagement, and Outreach in the

Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis

While a great deal of research focused on negative effects, our analysis found that

research claims pointing to an increase in suicides as a result of Season 1 were unconvincing.

Although it is difficult to rule out adverse

effects, we found no evidence that the show increased suicides in either male or female teens

at the time that the show launched.

spoke to their friends

spoke to their parents

spoke to a sibling

spoke to a partner

63%

47%

19%

13%

Unlike Season 1 or Season 2, the Season 3

storyline did not feature a suicide nor unpack

why a suicide happened. Yet somehow, this

storyline, which primarily focused on who killed

the antagonist Bryce Walker, inspired teens to

speak about this topic. Experts suggest that

talking about suicide can sometimes serve as a

protective factor.

FINDING #1:

CONVERSATIONS ABOUT MENTAL HEALTH

The vast majority of the teens who

watched reported discussing

issues featured in the storylines.

Teens who watched , Season 3,

spoke about suicide 166% more than

teens who did not watch it.

13RW

88 of teens discussed issues in the storylines

In particular, suicide, mental health, and bullying

were topics of discussion:

Interestingly enough, teen suicide

rates declined in 2019, the year

Season 3 of 13RW came out. 10

such as suicide, mental health, and bullying

%

8,9

8

Dan Romer Annenberg Public Policy Center of the U of Penn

c

13RW

c Experimental study.

92 mental health information

% of teens looked for

FINDING #2:

SEEKING MENTAL HEALTH INFORMATION d

Our findings indicate that teens who experienced sexual assault—or were close to someone who had—were particularly motivated to seek out information related to stories from the show. One of Season 3’s major storylines was about Jessica, a victim of sexual assault, becoming an advocate for others. In addition, the season documented Tyler’s emotional recovery from his own sexual assault.

People of all ages and backgrounds, but especially youth, young adults, and parents are eager to learn more about mental health. The

readiness to engage, shed stigma, and incorporate new learnings into every day practice has never

been as high as it is at this point in history.

Three males reported they had been subject to sexual assault. 9

e Sexual assault was defined as having ever been forced to do sexual things that you did not want to do (such things as kissing, touching).

d Experimental study.

f

Christine Yu Moutier, MD Chief Medical Officer

American Foundation for Suicide Prevention

Most teens who watched said they looked for mental health information due to something they saw in the show.

13RW

Season 3 showed how male heterosexual

stereotypes shaped the home life of the show’s

serial rapist.

Viewers may have learned from the show that

internalizing rigid masculine stereotypes

contributes to this kind of behavior.

Viewers who knew someone who had experienced sexual assault sought more information on gender stereotypes more frequently than those who did not.

e

The top 3 topics were:

Bullying

Mental health

Sexual assault

All of the male-identified viewers who reported

that they had been subject to sexual assault

sought out information on this topic. f

Credit: Instagram @13reasonswhy

Credit: Instagram @13reasonswhy

7

“I’ve watched like 5 episodes of 13 Reasons Why and I’m already talking about how to prevent suicide.”

“Every on e of us sh

ould watc h

@13Reaso nsWhy & t

hink a bit more abo

ut

how we in teract wit

h others.”

“Finished #13ReasonsWhy already and now I’m feeling all the feels. Wow. What an emotional rollercoaster and an absolute eye opener. Amazing.”

FINDING #3:

POSITIVE SOCIAL CONVERSATION

AFTER SEASON ONE

Overall, the social conversation

immediately after release was 93%

positive. No negative conversations

were found one week after the release.

Advocates were active on social

media, pointing out how important it is

to discuss sensitive issues openly (e.g.

depression, suicidal thoughts, sexual

assault) without shame.

On Twitter, the social conversation around Season 1 was overwhelmingly positive, in particular with respect to mental health and suicide.

10gSocial listening study.

687,556 total mentions of key topics related to the show after Season 1

93% around mental health, bullying, and suicide

social media conversations were

positive

SEASON 1

Positive conversations

were defined by MarketCast as viewers discussing the topics or

praising the show for addressing commonly taboo topics.

Negative conversations

were defined by MarketCast as discussions that raised questions

of whether the show represented topics accurately.

g

Credit: Instagram @13reasonswhy

SEASON 2

SEASON 3

497,794 total mentions of key topics related to the show after Season 2

50% negative

conversation

The social conversations about suicide

after the release of Season 2 and

Season 3 were much more negative,

even though suicide was not a focus in

either of those seasons. This could be

an indication that the theme of suicide is

ingrained in how some view the show

as a whole, even beyond the first

season.The amount of conversation

related to 13RW overall and its positive nature declined over time, indicating

that the show—and its accompanying

resources—may not have fully realized

its potential for positive outcomes.

While the Season 1 social

conversation was overwhelmingly

positive, it became more negative

during Season 2.

By Season 3, the conversation

leaned back to the positive.

FINDING #4:

NEGATIVE SOCIAL CONVERSATION

AFTER LAUNCH OF SEASONS TWO AND THREE

105,984 total mentions of key topics related to the show after Season 3

11

52%

35%

32%

positive conversation

positive conversation negative

conversation

“I hope teen boys/men

watch 13 Re asons Why

to see what rape

culture and male

entitlement looks like

from the ot her side.” “I’m starting @13ReasonsWhy

Season 3 and because of how last season made me I’m really nervous. I want to see how the show progresses but I might

not be able to make it through this season.”

“Bojack Horseman

portrays mental

illness better than

13 Reasons Why.”

“I do not

care wha

t

anyo ne s

ays, 13 R

easo ns

Why DOE

S NO T he

lp w ith

suici de a

ware ness

and is

VER Y tri

gger ing.

I DO NOT

REC OMM

END .”

h

h Social listening study.

13Reasonswhy.info

Devin Druid, the actor who plays Tyler (one

of the main characters), posted a thread of

helpline resources and shared an article

where he discussed sexual assault.

When a cast member shared resources, it was enthusiastically embraced.

FINDING #5:

TEENS USED THE RESOURCES OFFERED BY NETFLIX

Alisha Boe telling audiences to wake up

and tell themselves “I am strong” resonated with females.

More personal and empowering PSAs generated more engagement on Instagram.

On social media platforms that hosted PSAs related to the show,

viewers engaged with them significantly less than they did with

emotional or behind-the-scenes clips from the shows.

The social media profiles affiliated with the

show were visited by 52% of the

respondents.

12

Of teens who watched Season 3,

34% visited resource pages.

One-fifth reported that they watched the

short documentary Beyond the Reasons.

Over 15% said they visited 13Reasonswhy.info

i

i Experimental and social listening study.

Procedure Participants were randomly assigned to either:

1) Watch Season 3 of 13RW or 2) Not watch Season 3 of 13RW

Participants were asked to complete a pre-intervention survey and then

directed to watch or not watch Season 3. One month later, teens were

asked to complete another survey.

The pre- and post-survey included questions about depression, mental

wellness, self-efficacy, sexual assault, perpetration of bullying, and seeking

mental health help. Participants were also asked if (and with whom) they

had conversations about social and mental health issues such as suicide,

sexual assault, substance use, gender stereotypes, and sexuality. In the

post-survey, the group that watched the show also answered questions if,

and with whom, they discussed 13RW and whether what they saw on the show led them to seek further information on topics tied to its storylines.

White

56.5%

Hispanic/Latinx

19.5%

Black

17.5%

Multiracial

6.6%Sample There were 157 participants from across the country who

completed the experimental study, with 68 in the

intervention group (who watched the show) and 89 in the

control group. Participants were 13 to 17 years old, about 15

years old on average, and were 52% female and 48% male.

The majority of the sample was White (about 55%), while

19% were Hispanic/Latinx, 17% Black, and 6.4% multiracial.

We recruited this sample through NORC at the University of

Chicago, which has a nationally representative pool of

participants.

13

METHODOLOGY

We first conducted an experimental study to determine the effects of 13 Reasons Why on adolescents’ mental health and pro-social behaviors.

Experimental Study

Procedure MarketCast provided the frequency for which each topic was mentioned and categorized each

mention as positive, negative, neutral or mixed in nature. Positive conversations were defined as

viewers discussing the topics or praising the show for addressing commonly taboo topics. Negative

conversations were defined as discussions that raised questions of whether the show represented

topics accurately.

Note: Data were calculated using human sentiment analysis, so a trained analyst researched a

statistically relevant sample size for each season’s conversation to ensure 99% accuracy in sentiment

analysis. MarketCast also analyzed the social media accounts and posts of the show’s talent, social

media influencers, and hotlines and helplines to uncover how these influenced the conversation.

We also commissioned a social listening study, tracking social media

for mentions of specific topics on specific platforms, to examine the

conversation around 13RW. Our goal was to examine the natural conversation that took place about the show, exploring how such

discussions changed while investigating why such changes were

occurring. In order to find this information, CSS partnered up with

MarketCast’s Real-Time Analytics team, which specializes in social

media monitoring and research.

Sample MarketCast identified Twitter conversations one week after the premiere of each season (Seasons 1–3)

that included keywords and phrases that we provided to them.

These included: mental health; depression; anxiety; anorexia; PTSD; grief; suicide (considering and

attempting); abortion/parenthood planning; teen pregnancy; preventing teen pregnancy; social media

pressure; social media; bullying (online and offline); gender stereotypes (toxic masculinity); sexual

harassment; sexual assault; sexual abuse; youth-on-youth violence; substance abuse; sexuality;

immigration; school shootings/guns; socioeconomic status; body image; good people vs. bad people;

homelessness; and race.

MarketCast identified 687,556 mentions related to Season 1; 497,794 mentions related to Season 2;

and 105,984 mentions related to Season 3. We were not able to gather demographic data (gender,

age, or race) on those who posted about these topics.

14

METHODOLOGY

Social Listening Study

There were limitations regarding both of our studies. In the experimental study, for

safety reasons, we excluded any teens who had experienced, or were at the time

experiencing, serious suicidal ideation. As such, our results may not apply to a

population struggling with very severe mental health symptoms. We were also unable

to measure whether conversations or steps taken to seek information were positive or

negative.

The social listening study gave us important insights into the conversations that the

public was having on social media after the initial release of each season. While the

experimental study above was focused on adolescents, it is unknown if the social

listening study had a purely adolescent sample. We are not able to make

generalizations about how a certain group of people communicated on Twitter about

the show, as we do not have demographic data (e.g. age, gender, location) on those

who mentioned key topics related to the show. Additionally, we were only able to

analyze mentions from public Twitter accounts, which does not include private

accounts or mentions on any other social media platforms.

15

LIMITATIONS

1

Youth Resources: American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry

Crisis Text Line: Text “HOME” to 741741 to speak with a crisis counselor

Suicide Prevention Lifeline: 1-800-273-8255

TeenLine: Emotional support for youth

The Jed Foundation: Helpline text “START” to 741-741 call 1-800-273-TALK (8255)

The Trevor Project: Lifeline 1-866-488-7386

16

American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry: Facts for Families

Child Mind Institute: Parents Guide to Good Care

HealthyChildren.org: Resources from the American Academy of Pediatrics

KidsHealth: How to Understand Your Child’s Emotions and Behavior

MentalHealth.gov: For Parents and Caregivers

National Alliance on Mental Illness: Helpline — 888.950.NAMI (6264)

Mental Health Resources for Teens

Mental Health Resources For Parents

For more resources, visit: www.scholarsandstorytellers.com/teen-mental-health-report

www.scholarsandstorytellers.com/teen-mental-health-report-resources

RESOURCES



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The impact of modern social media on our psychological health. 1. Review ‘The Digital Turn Case Study’ on page 13 of your textbook. 2. Watch the following YouTube video: htt


The impact of modern social media on our psychological health. 1.   Review ‘The Digital Turn Case Study’ on page 13 of your textbook. 2.   Watch the following YouTube video:  htt

 the impact of modern social media on our psychological health.

1.   Review “The Digital Turn Case Study” on page 13 of your textbook.

2.   Watch the following YouTube video:  https://youtu.be/lXRPy284u0Q (Links to an external site.)

3.   Write a 500- 750 word response to the video emphasizing:

  • Your perception of FOMO in your own life and the lives of your friends
  • Your perception of the power of social media in your life and our modern society

Our website has a team of professional writers who can help you write any of your homework. They will write your papers from scratch. We also have a team of editors just to make sure all papers are of HIGH QUALITY & PLAGIARISM FREE. To make an Order you only need to click Ask A Question and we will direct you to our Order Page at WriteDemy. Then fill Our Order Form with all your assignment instructions. Select your deadline and pay for your paper. You will get it few hours before your set deadline.

Fill in all the assignment paper details that are required in the order form with the standard information being the page count, deadline, academic level and type of paper. It is advisable to have this information at hand so that you can quickly fill in the necessary information needed in the form for the essay writer to be immediately assigned to your writing project. Make payment for the custom essay order to enable us to assign a suitable writer to your order. Payments are made through Paypal on a secured billing page. Finally, sit back and relax.



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Read the report ‘Inclusion in the Director’s Chair’: Inclusion in Director’s Chair.pdf 2. Write a 500 – 750-word response to the report that addresses each of the following qu


Read the report ‘Inclusion in the Director’s Chair’:  Inclusion in Director’s Chair.pdf 2.  Write a 500 – 750-word response to the report that addresses each of the following qu

1.  Read the report “Inclusion in the Director’s Chair”:  Inclusion in Director’s Chair.pdf

2.  Write a 500 – 750-word response to the report that addresses each of the following questions:

  • What was the most surprising result highlighted in this study?  Why?
  • If you were in charge of a major film studio, what policies would you implement to address the issues raised in this report?

Inclusion in the Director’s Chair: Analysis of Director Gender &

Race/Ethnicity Across 1,300 Top Films from 2007 to 2019

Dr. Stacy L. Smith, Marc Choueiti, Kevin Yao, Hannah Clark & Dr. Katherine Pieper

January 2020

INCLUSION IN THE DIRECTOR’S CHAIR? ANALYSIS OF DIRECTOR GENDER & RACE/ETHNICITY

ACROSS 1,300 TOP FILMS FROM 2007 TO 2019 USC ANNENBERG INCLUSION INITIATIVE

@Inclusionists

FEMALES ARE OUTNUMBERED IN THE DIRECTOR’S CHAIR

2.7

8

3.6 2.8

3.7 4.1

1.9 1.9

7.5

4.2

7.3

PREVALENCE OF FEMALE DIRECTORS ACROSS 1,300 FILMS in percentages

© 2020 DR. STACY L. SMITH

4.5 Total Number

of Directors 1,448

Percentage of Female Directors

Across 13 Years 4.8%

10.6

54.2 55.8

Male-Directed Films

(average)

Female-Directed Films

(average)

NO DIFFERENCE IN METACRITIC SCORES BY FILM DIRECTOR GENDER Median and average Metacritic score across 1,300 films from 2007 to 2019

FEMALE- DIRECTED

FILMS55

MALE- DIRECTED

FILMS54 VS.

(midpoint)

(midpoint)

RATIO OF MALE TO FEMALE DIRECTORS ACROSS 13 YEARS

20 TO 1

‘15‘07 ‘08 ‘09 ‘10 ‘12 ‘13 ‘14 ‘16 ‘18‘11 ‘17 ‘19

*Box Office data was pulled on 1/1/20, using projections for the 99th and 100th film in the sample. Fluctuations in rank and included films will occur after study release.

2007 AND 2019

Gina Prince-Bythewood*

Lilly Wachowski

Susanna White

FEMALE DIRECTORS ACROSS 1,300 TOP-GROSSING FILMS

Angelina Jolie

Anna Foerster

Ava DuVernay*

Betty Thomas

Brenda Chapman

Catherine Hardwicke

Diane English

Elizabeth Allen Rosenbaum

Elizabeth Banks

Jennifer Flackett

Jennifer Lee

Jessie Nelson

Julie Anne Robinson

Julie Taymor

Kathryn Bigelow

Kimberly Peirce

Kirsten Sheridan

Lana Wachowski

THERE ARE

INDIVIDUAL FEMALE

DIRECTORS BETWEEN

57 Loveleen Tandan*

Nancy Meyers

Niki Caro

Nora Ephron

Phyllida Lloyd

Sam Taylor-Johnson

Sanaa Hamri*

Shari Springer Berman

Sharon Maguire

Thea Sharrock

Patricia Riggen*

Jodie Foster

Sarah Smith

Jennifer Yuh Nelson*

Patty Jenkins

Trish Sie

Anne Fletcher

Hallie Meyers-Shyer

Greta Gerwig

Stacy Title

Stella Meghie*

Lucia Aniello

*An asterisk denotes an underrepresented

female director.

Abby Kohn

Kay Cannon

Susanna Fogel

© 2020 DR. STACY L. SMITH

Anna Boden

Gail Mancuso

Jill Culton

Kasi Lemmons*

Lorene Scafaria

Marielle Heller

Olivia Wilde

Roxann Dawson*

Tina Gordon*

Melina Matsoukas*

3 11 38 8 13

123152 211

15

22

1,44870 OUT OF

4

DIRECTORS

192

Li o

n sg

a te

Pa ra

m o

u n

t

So n

y Pi

ct u

re s

ST X

E n

t.

20 th

C en

t. F

o x

U n

iv er

sa l

W a

lt D

is n

ey

W a

rn er

B ro

s.

220 164 240

FEMALE DIRECTORS BY DISTRIBUTOR Number of female directors across 1,300 films by distributor

O th

er

5

124Total # of Directors

Mimi Leder

UNDERREPRESENTED DIRECTORS BY DISTRIBUTOR

TOTAL NUMBER

OF DIRECTORS

NUMBER OF UR

DIRECTORS

20TH CENTURY FOX

PARAMOUNT PICTURES

SONY PICTURES

UNIVERSAL PICTURES

WALT DISNEY STUDIOS

WARNER BROS. PICTURES

LIONSGATE

STX ENTERTAINMENT

OTHER

TOTAL

192

152

211

220

164

240

123

22

124

1,448

29

14

34

39

10

25

26

0

19

196

© 2020 DR. STACY L. SMITH

OVERALL

12.5

0

5

10

15

20

25

13.5% 11.6

13.5

10.1 8.3 9.1

16.8

12.2 12.2 13.3

18.3 21.4

16.8

UNDERREPRESENTED DIRECTORS BY YEAR Number of underrepresented directors across 1,300 films

‘15‘07 ‘08 ‘09 ‘10 ‘12 ‘13 ‘14 ‘16 ‘18‘11 ‘17 ‘19

Number of underrepresented directors across 1,300 films

DISTRIBUTION COMPANY

15%

9%

16%

18%

6%

10%

21%

0

15%

13.5%

PERCENTAGE OF UR

DIRECTORS

Race/ethnicity of 57 individual female directors across 1,300 films

HOLLYWOOD’S IMAGE OF A FEMALE DIRECTOR IS A WHITE WOMAN

46 WOMEN ARE WHITE

© 2020 DR. STACY L. SMITH

54.2

Films by White Directors

(average)

Films by UR Directors

(average)

METACRITIC SCORES FOR UNDERREPRESENTED DIRECTORS Median and average Metacritic score across 1,300 films from 2007 to 2019

THE MIDPOINT SCORE IS THE SAME FOR FILMS BY

WHITE AND UNDERREPRESENTED

DIRECTORS

54

U.S. POPULATION

TOTAL #

TOTAL %

20%

183

12.6%

30%

57

3.9%

30%

1,195

82.5% <1%

13

20%

WHITE MALES

WHITE FEMALES

UR MALES

UR FEMALES

GENDER & UNDERREPRESENTED STATUS OF FILM DIRECTORS Percentage and number of directors by gender and underrepresented status across 1,300 films from 2007 to 2019

11 WOMEN ARE FROM UNDERREPRESENTED RACIAL/ETHNIC GROUPS

54.9

INDICATOR

Percentage of female directors by media platform PIPELINE PROBLEMS: CAREER PROGRESS STALLS FOR FEMALES

29.7 DROP

FROM NARRATIVE INDEPENDENT FILMS

TO TOP-GROSSING FILMS

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

Netflix Directors 2019

Narrative Independent Films

Episodic TV Directors 2018-19

Top-Grossing Films 2007-2019

34.5% 31%

20%

4.8%

© 2020 DR. STACY L. SMITH

PERCENTAGE POINT

RATIO OF WHITE MEN TO UNDERREPRESENTED WOMEN DIRECTORS ACROSS 13 YEARS

92 TO 1

2

1

4 3

1

2

SONY

FOXUNIVERSAL

DISNEY

WB PARAMOUNT

UNDERREPRESENTED WOMEN DIRECTORS BY DISTRIBUTOR Number of underrepresented women directors per distributor from 2007-2019

13 years: 2007-2019. 1,300 movies. 13

under- represented

women directors.

ONLY

Zero underrepresented women directors worked on top films from Lionsgate, STX, or other distributors.

© 2020 DR. STACY L. SMITH

METACRITIC SCORES BY GENDER AND UNDERREPRESENTED STATUS Average metacritic score by gender and race/ethnicity of directors, 2007-2019

UR FEMALE

DIRECTORS EARN THE HIGHEST AVERAGE

& MIDPOINT SCORES OF

ANY GROUP.

YET, THEY WORK THE

LEAST.

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

TOTAL

11%

18%

17%

11%

17%

15%

0

8%

8%

13%

6%

7%

9%

5%

0

8%

17%

8%

18%

5%

15%

0

16%

11%

LI O

N S

G A

TE

PA R

A M

O U

N T

S O

N Y

P IC

TU R

E S

S TX

E N

T.

20 TH

C .

FO X

U N

IV E

R S

A L

W A

LT D

IS N

E Y

W A

R N

E R

B R

O S

.

12%

9%

13%

11%

26%

14%

0

14%

22%

11%

25%

17%

0

0

0

0

0

0

4%

4%

0

6%

6%

4%

FEMALE DIRECTORS BY DISTRIBUTOR SLATE & YEAR Percentage of female directors per distributor slate, 2015-2019

Y E

A R

54.3 54.354.2 62.5

1,051 films

by White Males

179 films

by UR

Males

56 films

by White

Females

13 films

by UR

Females

5.1%

OF BEST DIRECTOR NOMINEES

FROM 2008-2020 WERE FEMALE.

94.9% WERE MALE.

THE GENDER GAP IN AWARDS Percentage of Female Directors by Award Type, 2008-2020

Golden Globes

Academy Awards

DGA Awards

Critics’ Choice

4.9 3.24.5 7.1

Female

Male

Angelina Jolie

Ava Duvernay

Greta Gerwig

Greta Gerwig

Kathryn Bigelow

Kathryn Bigelow

UNBROKEN

SELMA

LADY BIRD

LITTLE WOMEN

THE HURT LOCKER

ZERO DARK THIRTY

DIRECTOR NAME

FILM TITLE

G O

LD E

N G

LO B

E S

D G

A A

W A

R D

S

A C

A D

E M

Y A

W A

R D

S

C R

IT IC

S ’

C H

O IC

E

FEMALE DIRECTORS RECEIVING AWARD NOMINATIONS Female directors and films nominated for Best Directing awards from 2008-2020

TOP PERFORMER IN 2019: UNIVERSAL PICTURES Universal distributed the most films by women directors in 2019.

95.195.5 96.8 92.9

© 2020 DR. STACY L. SMITH

A black check mark indicates a nomination; a red check indicates a nomination and win.

YEAR

2015

2015

2018

2020

2010

2013

26 OUT OF 40 FILM SLATES FROM 8 COMPANIES (2015-2019) DID NOT INCLUDE EVEN ONE UNDERREPRESENTED WOMAN DIRECTOR.

FOR FEMALE DIRECTORS, 2019 WAS A BANNER YEAR

12 FEMALE DIRECTORS WORKED ACROSS THE 100 TOP-GROSSING FILMS OF 2019. 4 OF THOSE WOMEN WERE WOMEN OF COLOR.

© 2020 DR. STACY L. SMITH

Annenberg Inclusion Initiative — 1

Inclusion in the Director’s Chair: Analysis of Director Gender and Race/Ethnicity Across 1,300 Top Films from 2007 to 2019

Annenberg Inclusion Initiative

Each year, we examine the gender and race/ethnicity of directors working across the 100 top fictional films theatrically released in the U.S. A total of 1,300 of the most popular movies were included in the analysis, from 2007 to 2019. Put differently, 1,448 directors were assessed across two inclusion metrics (e.g., gender, race/ethnicity). Given the recent conversation surrounding women directors in the press, we conducted 3 additional analyses: a slate analysis of director inclusion across all the movies distributed by 8 major companies from 2015-2019; a pipeline analysis of female directors in entertainment (e.g., Sundance Film Festival, episodic television, Netflix movies), and an examination of female directors’ award nominations across the last 13 years at 4 organizations (Golden Globes, Academy Awards, DGA, Critics’ Choice). Findings are presented below for each section of the report.

Key Findings: 1,300 Top Grossing Movies from 2007-2019

Female Directors

A total of 113 directors were attached across the 100 top movies of 2019. A full 89.4% (n=101) were male and 10.6% (n=12) were female. This calculates into a gender ratio of 8.4 males to every 1 female. Across 1,300 films and 1,448 helmers, only 4.8% of directors were women. Has the prevalence of female directors changed over time? Yes. 2019 had a significantly higher percentage (10.6%) and number of female directors than 2018 (4.5%, n=5) or 2007 (2.7%, n=3). Of the major studios, Universal Pictures had the most female directors attached to the films they distributed (15 women), followed by Warner Bros. (13 women) and Sony Pictures Entertainment (11 women). The company with the worst track record for distributing films helmed by female directors was Paramount Pictures, which had only 3 pictures out of 134 movies distributed from 2007-2019 directed by a woman. Critical reception of male- and female-directed films was assessed using Metacritic scores. The average Metacritc score for films with only male directors attached (Mean=54.2, Range=9-100) was virtually identical to those with a female director attached (Mean=55.8, Range=22-95). The medians across these two groups were also evaluated, and revealed no difference between male- and female-directed films. Despite receiving the same average critical review, female directors were given substantially less access and opportunity than male directors to helm these highly visible films. Underrepresented Directors Of the 113 directors of 2019, a full 83.2% were white (n=94) and 16.8% (n=19) were underrepresented. This is substantially below U.S. Census, which is 39.6%. The ratio of white directors to underrepresented directors is 4.9 to 1. Only 13.5% of all helmers across the 13-year sample were from an underrepresented racial/ethnic group. 2019 (16.8%) was not meaningfully different from 2018 (21.4%) for underrepresented directors nor was it

Annenberg Inclusion Initiative — 2

significantly higher than 2007 (12.5%). 2019 was practically different only from 2008, 2010, 2011, and 2012. Of the major studios, Universal Pictures has the highest number of underrepresented directors attached to their distributed films (39 directors) followed by Sony Pictures Entertainment (34 directors) and 20th Century Fox (29 directors). Disney has the worst track record (10 directors) from 2007 to 2019. No differences in average Metacritic scores were observed between white (Mean=54.2, Range=9-100) and underrepresented directors (Mean=54.9, Range=11-99). Medians also did not differ, with both groups having the same Metacritic mid-point in the distribution of their movies (54). Women of Color Directors Only 13 women from underrepresented racial/ethnic groups have directed any of the 1,300 top movies from 2007 to 2019. This is less than 1% of all directing jobs (n=1,448) whereas white males held 82.5% of jobs, underrepresented males 12.6% of jobs, and white females 3.9% of jobs. The ratio of white male directors to underrepresented female directors was 92 to 1. Yet, this group of women represents 20% of the U.S. population. Only two underrepresented female directors – Ava DuVernay and Jennifer Yuh Nelson – have helmed more than one movie appearing across the 1,300 films and 13-year sample. Four of the women of color were added to the list in 2019 (i.e., Kasi Lemmons, Melina Matsoukas, Roxann Dawson, Tina Gordon). No company has distributed the stories of more than 4 underrepresented female directors across 13 years. The average Metacritic score was higher for stories directed by women of color (Mean=62.5, Range=44- 89) than those stories directed by white males (Mean=54.2, Range=9-100), white females (Mean=54.3, Range=22-95), or underrepresented males (Mean=54.3, Range=11-99). The medians in the distributions followed the same pattern. Clearly, there is a major disconnect between hiring practices in Hollywood and who has the cinematic heft to carry stories.

Slate Analysis: 2015-2019

All the films distributed by 8 companies and their wholly-owned subsidiaries were evaluated for director gender and race/ethnicity. The analysis only included U.S. theatrical releases, fictional films, new releases, and those movies presented either in English or with the U.S. listed as the country of origin (whole or part). Over 5 years, a full 688 movies met the criteria with 755 directors attached. Of the 755 helmers across slates, 90.2% were male (n=681) and 9.8% were female (n=74). The 74 females were primarily Caucasian (74.3%, n=55); only 25.7% (n=19) were women of color. Over time, 2019 was the highest year across the 5 examined (15%, n=20 female directors). 2019 was higher than 2018 (7.6%, n=11) and 2015 (8.6%, n=14). The most notable change was observed at Universal Pictures. In 2019, 7 female directors were attached to movies distributed by Universal Pictures and/or their wholly owned subsidiaries in comparison to 3-4 in the years prior. The remaining companies only increased or decreased by 1 film save Warner Bros., which decreased 2 movies from 2015 but showed a gain from 2018. Paramount Pictures did not distribute a single movie with a female director in 5 years.

Annenberg Inclusion Initiative — 3

Over the last five years, 26 of the 40 film slates distributed across the largest companies did not have a single woman of color attached to direct. Sony Pictures Entertainment was the anomaly, distributing movies made by 7 women of color over 5 years.

Pipeline Analysis We examined three access points to the broader film industry: 1) taking a feature to U.S. Dramatic Competition at the Sundance Film Festival, 2) directing an episode of fictional television, and/or 3) helming a Netflix movie. Across 5 years (2015-2019) at the Sundance Film Festival, females comprised 34.5% (n=29) of all U.S. Dramatic Competition directors. Of the 29 female directors, 11 were from underrepresented racial/ethnic groups. This calculates into 13.1% of the total pool of competition directors (n=84). Pivoting to episodic storytelling, the Directors Guild of America (2019) recently released findings on working directors by gender and race/ethnicity across the 2018 – 2019 television season. According to their information, 31% of all directors during the last season were women, with 22% Caucasian and 8% from underrepresented racial/ethnic groups. It is important to note that these findings are from the DGA report released in 2019 and are included here only for purposes of comparison. Rounding out the pipeline, a full 20% of the 53 U.S. films (n=55 directors) streamed by Netflix in 2019 had a female director attached. Eight of those women (14.5%) were white and 3 were from underrepresented racial/ethnic groups (5.5%). These findings from episodic television and Netflix movies illuminate just how out of step the studios and mini majors are in their hiring and acquisition practices when it comes to female directors.

Female Director Awards Recognition: 2007-2019

We examined the gender of director nominations across 13 years and 4 awards shows: Golden Globe Awards, The Directors Guild of America (DGA) Awards, Academy Awards/Oscars, and Critics’ Choice Awards. Overall, a total of 273 nominations were given out across the 4 top award shows with 94.9% allocated to male directors (n=259) and 5.1% allocated to female directors (n=14). All 14 of these nominations were accounted for by 4 women (Angelina Jolie, Ava DuVernay, Kathryn Bigelow, Greta Gerwig). Only 1 director was a woman of color (Ava DuVernay). Was there notable deviation by awards show over the last 13 years? All of the organizations were problematic in recognizing female talent, with the Critics’ Choice Awards (7.1%, n=6) slightly more welcoming to female directors than the Golden Globes (4.5%, n=3), DGA Awards (4.9%, n=3), or the Oscars (3.2%, n=2).

Annenberg Inclusion Initiative — 4

Inclusion in the Director’s Chair: Analysis of Director Gender and Race/Ethnicity Across the 1,300 Top Films from 2007 to 2019

A Research Brief

Dr. Stacy L. Smith, Marc Choueiti, Kevin Yao, Hannah Clark, & Dr. Katherine Pieper

Each year, we examine the gender and race/ethnicity of directors working across the 100 top fictional films theatrically released in the U.S.1 A total of 1,300 of the most popular movies were included in the analysis, from 2007 to 2019.2 We focused on the top leadership position in film production, as the director is involved in not only working with above the line talent (e.g., writers, producers, actors) but also unit heads employed below the line as crew. In the film industry, like many other sectors of employment, leadership can be both gendered and racialized in ways that limit access and opportunity for women and/or people of color.3

In this research brief, we overview the 2019 findings from the 100 top films first followed by a comparison to the 100 top films of 2018 and then 2007. Only 5 percentage point differences or greater were noted. This criterion was set to ensure making noise about substantive changes and not trivial deviations (1-2%). Detailed information about our methodology can be found in the footnotes or online in previous releases of our Inclusion in the Director’s Chair report.4 One final caveat is worth noting. We pulled the final list of 2019 films on the morning of January 1st 2020. Because within year box office is still accumulating and we anticipated changes to the list by the first weekend in the new year, we used projected box office figures to determine the 99th and 100th film included in the sample. In addition to this, several movies are still in theaters and the 100 top films may continue to shift in rank over the next several weeks. Some films will be added to or fall off the list. As such, we present the report as a brief with the intent to release a longer manuscript later in the year.

Gender A total of 113 directors were attached across the 100 top movies of 2019. A full 89.4% (n=101) were male and 10.6% (n=12) were female. This calculates into a gender ratio of 8.4 males to every 1 female. The 12 female directors include: Anna Boden, Gail Mancuso, Greta Gerwig, Jennifer Lee, Jill Culton, Kasi Lemmons, Lorene Scafaria, Marielle Heller, Melina Matsoukas, Olivia Wilde, Roxann Dawson, and Tina Gordon. Sample wide, only 4.8% of directors were women. Has the prevalence of female directors changed over time? As shown in Table 1, 2019 has a significantly higher percentage and number of female directors than 2018 (4.5%, n=5) or 2007 (2.7%, n=3). Matter of fact, the number has more than doubled since 2018 and tripled from 2007. It must also be noted that 2019 is not practically different from 2008 (9 women), the previous high for women directors working across the 100 top films.

Annenberg Inclusion Initiative — 5

Table 1 Director Gender of Fictional Films by Year

Year Males Females Total 2007 97.3% (n=109) 2.7% (n=3) 112 2008 92% (n=103) 8% (n=9) 112 2009 96.4% (n=107) 3.6% (n=4) 111 2010 97.2% (n=106) 2.8% (n=3) 109 2011 96.3% (n=104) 3.7% (n=4) 108 2012 95.9% (n=116) 4.1% (n=5) 121 2013 98.1% (n=105) 1.9% (n=2) 107 2014 98.1% (n=105) 1.9% (n=2) 107 2015 92.5% (n=99) 7.5% (n=8) 107 2016 95.8% (n=115) 4.2% (n=5) 120 2017 92.7% (n=101) 7.3% (n=8) 109 2018 95.5% (n=107) 4.5% (n=5) 112 2019 89.4% (n=101) 10.6% (n=12) 113

Overall 95.2% (n=1,378) 4.8% (n=70) 1,448

The female director working the most frequently over the sample time frame was Anne Fletcher, with 4 films followed by Lana Wachowski with 3. Ava DuVernay worked on two movies across the 100 top films from 2007 to 2019 as did Catherine Hardwicke, Greta Gerwig, Jennifer Lee, Jennifer Yuh Nelson, Julie Anne Robinson, Nancy Meyers and Phyllida Lloyd. Next, we looked at the companies distributing female-directed films.5 To this end, each film was sorted by its distributor. Outside of the studios and mini majors, all other companies were collapsed into an “other” (e.g., A24, MGM, UA) category. As shown in Table 2, Universal Pictures (15 women) had the most female directors attached to the films they distributed, followed by Warner Bros. (13 women) and Sony Pictures Entertainment (11 women). The company with the worst track record for distributing films helmed by female directors was Paramount Pictures, which had only 3 pictures out of 134 movies distributed from 2007-2019 directed by a woman. STX also had 3 female directors, but only 19 films were in the 100 top movies starting in 2015.

Table 2 # of Female Directors Across 1,300 Films by Distributor

Company

Li on

sg at

e

Pa ra

m ou

nt

Pi ct

ur es

So ny

P ic

tu re

s En

te rt

ai nm

en t

ST X

En te

rt ai

nm en

t

20 th

C en

tu ry

Fo

x

U ni

ve rs

al

Pi ct

ur es

W al

t D

is ne

y St

ud io

s

W ar

ne r

Br

os .

O th

er

# of Female Directors 4 3 11 3 8 15 8 13 5 # of Directors Overall 123 152 211 22 192 220 164 240 124

Examining the critical reception of films by director gender was the next focus of the report. All 1,300 movies were bifurcated into two silos: those with a female director attached (n=69) vs. those without a

Annenberg Inclusion Initiative — 6

female director attached (n=1,230). Then, we compared Metacritic scores — an aggregate and weighted mean across reviews — between these two groups. 6

Figure 1 Average Metacritic Score by Film Director Gender

As shown in Figure 1, the average Metacritc score for films with only male directors attached (Mean=54.2, Range=9-100) was virtually identical to those with a female director attached (Mean=55.8, Range=22-95). The medians across these two groups were also evaluated, and revealed no difference between male-directed films (Median=54) and female-directed films (Median=55). Thus, the critical reception for these two groups of films was identical. Overall, few female directors work across the 100 top-grossing films in Hollywood. Though 2019 was a high in terms of the percentage and number of women directors, it was still a far cry from girls and women comprising 51% of the U.S. population.7 Further, the results of this section show that there were no differences in the critical review of female-directed and male-directed films. Despite receiving the same average critical review, female directors were given substantially less access and opportunity than male directors to helm these highly visible films. We now turn our attention to another marginalized community in Hollywood, directors from underrepresented racial/ethnic groups. Race/Ethnicity Each director was coded for race/ethnicity using a modified scheme based on U.S. Census categories. This measure was then collapsed into one of two categories: white vs. underrepresented racial/ethnic group. Of the 113 directors of 2019, a full 83.2% were white (n=94) and 16.8% (n=19) were underrepresented. This is substantially below U.S. Census, which is 39.6%.8 The ratio of white directors to underrepresented directors is 4.9 to 1.

54.2 55.8

0

20

40

60

80

Metacritic Average Score

Males

Females

Annenberg Inclusion Initiative — 7

Table 3

Director Underrepresented Status of Fictional Films by Year

Year White Underrepresented Total 2007 87.5% (n=98) 12.5% (n=14) 112 2008 88.4% (n=99) 11.6% (n=13) 112 2009 86.5% (n=96) 13.5% (n=15) 111 2010 89.9% (n=98) 10.1% (n=11) 109 2011 91.7% (n=99) 8.3% (n=9) 108 2012 90.9% (n=110) 9.1% (n=11) 121 2013 83.2% (n=89) 16.8% (n=18) 107 2014 87.9% (n=94) 12.2% (n=13) 107 2015 87.9% (n=94) 12.2% (n=13) 107 2016 86.7% (n=104) 13.3% (n=16) 120 2017 81.7% (n=89) 18.3% (n=20) 109 2018 78.6% (n=88) 21.4% (n=24) 112 2019 83.2% (n=94) 16.8% (n=19) 113

Overall 86.5% (n=1,252) 13.5% (n=196) 1,448 Only 13.5% of all helmers across the 13-year sample were from an underrepresented racial/ethnic group. Over time trends can be found in Table 3. 2019 (16.8%) was not meaningfully different from 2018 (21.4%) for underrepresented directors nor was it significantly higher than 2007 (12.5%). 2019 was practically different only from 2008, 2010, 2011, and 2012. The underrepresented director working the most frequently across the 100 top movies from 2007 to 2019 was Tyler Perry (18 films). Antoine Fuqua directed 7 films and James Wan, Jaume Collet-Serra, M. Night Shyamalan, Malcolm D. Lee, and Tim Story each helmed 6. The breakdown of underrepresented directors by distributors can be found in Table 4. Again, Universal Pictures (39 directors) has the highest number of underrepresented directors attached to their distributed films followed by Sony Pictures Entertainment (34 directors) and 20th Century Fox (29 directors). The worst offender was STX Entertainment, with no movies distributed with an underrepresented director behind the lens.

Table 4 # of Underrepresented Directors Across 1,300 Films by Distributor

Company

Li on

sg at

e

Pa ra

m ou

nt

Pi ct

ur es

So ny

P ic

tu re

s En

te rt

ai nm

en t

ST X

En te

rt ai

nm en

t

20 th

C en

tu ry

Fo

x

U ni

ve rs

al

Pi ct

ur es

W al

t D

is ne

y St

ud io

s

W ar

ne r

Br

os .

O th

er

# of UR Directors 26 14 34 0 29 39 10 25 19 # of Directors Overall 123 152 211 22 192 220 164 240 124

Annenberg Inclusion Initiative — 8

Does critical reception vary by director underrepresented status (yes, no)? To answer this query, we separated the films into two categories: those with only white directors (n=1,107) and those with at least one underrepresented director attached (n=192). As shown in Figure 2, no differences in average Metacritic scores were observed between white (Mean=54.2, Range=9-100) and underrepresented directors (Mean=54.9, Range=11-99). Medians also did not differ, with both groups having the same Metacritic mid-point in the distribution of their movies (54).

Figure 2 Average Metacritic Score by Film Director Underrepresented Status

Summing up, the percentage of films with an underrepresented director attached was far below U.S. Census. Similar to female directors, the movies made by directors from underrepresented racial/ethnic groups were just as strong as those from their white counterparts. Hollywood routinely shuts out women directors and helmers from underrepres

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Process Recordings A process recording is a written tool used by field education experience students, field instructors, and faculty to examine the dynamics of social work intera


Process Recordings A process recording is a written tool used by field education experience students, field instructors, and faculty to examine the dynamics of social work intera

Assignment 2: Process Recordings

A process recording is a written tool used by field education experience students, field instructors, and faculty to examine the dynamics of social work interactions in time. Process recordings can help in developing and refining interviewing and intervention skills. By conceptualizing and organizing ongoing activities with social work clients, you are able to clarify the purpose of interviews and interventions, identify personal and professional strengths and weaknesses, and improve self-awareness. The process recording is also a useful tool in exploring the interpersonal dynamics and values operating between you and the client system through an analysis of filtering the process used in recording a session.

For this Assignment, you will submit a process recording of your field education experiences specific to this week.

Note: You are submitting a written transcript, not an audio or video recording.

The Assignment (2–4 pages):

  • Provide a transcript of what happened during your field education experience, including a dialogue of interaction with a client.
  • Explain your interpretation of what occurred in the dialogue, including social work practice theories, and explain how it might relate to diversity or cultural competence covered this week.
  • Describe your reactions and/or any issues related to your interaction with a client during your field education experience.
  • Explain how you applied social work practice skills when performing the activities during your process recording.
By Day 7

Submit your Assignment

Note: You should also share your process recordings with your field instructor during your individual supervision.

Note: Adherence to confidentiality is required during your process recordings. Do not include real names of clients, supervisors, or social workers with whom you may come into contact during your social work field education experience. Omit any personal identifiers when detailing the interaction with your social work clients.

1

Process Recording

Student

Walden University

Process Recording

Client Information/ Presenting Issue

Client is a 16-year-old Hispanic and African American male from Jacksonville, Fl. He lives with his mother and has a younger sister. His step father and mother are divorcing. The daughter is the step father’s child and will be living with him, while client stays with his mother. He joined the dentention center due to charges of substance use/diagnosis/ possession and theft. I joined therapist, Mr. Sanchez in an individual session to follow up on a suicide precaution assesment. Right now Client is on a one to one precaution where staff signs off that he is okay every 30 minutes. Mr. Sanchez is meeting with him to see if he needs to be taken off or continue to be watched. During this session the client displayed symptoms of depression over the choices that he has made in the past. He is afraid that his step father doesn’t love him any more due to these choices and the present circumstances at home. Also during the session he switched his answer when asked if he continued to have thoughts of suicide. His appearance showed that he was either having a rough morning or a rough night. His eyes were red. Not the eyeballs, but his skin. This could possibly happen due to crying, rubbing, or lack of sleep. After analysing his responses and appearance, I believe that is was necessary to continue to keep a watchful eye on him.

Dialogue

Identify skills, techniques and theories

Analysis/assessment of dialogue

Personal reactions and self-reflections to the interaction

Therapist: Hey do you know Mrs. Green

Client: Yes

I have seen this youth and recognized that he is fairly new. I’m not sure if he would let me sit in on his session.

Therapist: Do you mind if she joins us in our session today?

Client: No. I don’t mind

Therapist: Great let’s go to the control room and talk

Therapist: How are you feeling today?

Client: (Smirks) I’m straight.

Therapist: Are you still thinking of harming yourself?

Client: Yes

Therapist: Why are you wanting to harm yourself?

Client: My dad doesn’t love me anymore.

His mouth is shaking. I hope he doesn’t cry because my eyes are getting watery just watching him.

Intern: The word “love” is an action word. Has your dad done anything to show you that he doesn’t love you?

Client: No. I guess not.

Engagement Skills

Providing Information

Intern: I believe he still loves you based on your response.

Therapist: Tell me two positive things about yourself.

Engagement Skills

Strengths perspective

Interpretation

Client: I am loyal and support my family

Therapist: That’s good that you support your family.

Therapist: Have you been thinking of harming yourself today?

Client: No. Not today.

Therapist: How is your sleep? Having you been sleeping well?

Client: No. I constantly wake up in the middle of the night.

He looks depressed and his eyes are extremely red.

Intern: I see that your eyes are red. Is it due to the lack of sleep or rubbing?

Client: yes

Intern: What do you do when you’re awake in the night.

Client: I write about how I’m feeling and what I’ve done in the past.

Intern: What are some of those decisions that you’ve made that bother you?

Client: I would go steal stuff with friends or if I ask my mom for something and she doesn’t give it to me then I would go out and get it.

Intern: Do you think your mom isn’t able to give you what you want or that she just won’t do it?

Client: She don’t give me stuff because of my behavior.

Engagement Skills

Building rapport

Therapist: So, you have trouble with impulse. Why do you think you have trouble with just taking things?

Client: I don’t have any patience and I should be punished for the things that I’ve done.

Engagement skills

Building rapport

Intern: Everyone makes mistakes. No one is perfect. I have done things that I regret. I’m sure Mrs. Sanchez has too.

Therapist: Yes. I have done many bad things.

Engagement Skills

Disclosure

Intern: It is normal for people to make poor decisions, but we must learn from them and continue, not allow them to beat us up and leave us unhappy.

Client: (Shakes his head to say yes.)

Engagement Skills

Encouragement

Therapist: Are we going to try to be positive today?

Client: yes

Therapist: Would you like to call your father.

Client: (smiles) Yea.

Therapist: Why are you smiling.

Client: Because I love talking to my dad. He’s the only one that understands me.

Therapist: What do you think Mrs. Green, should we keep him on precautions?

Intern: Yes, because I want to make sure you’re doing okay because we care about you Client.

Clients: (starts laughing and shakes his head that he understands)

Therapist: I agree.

I believe that he is a good kid. From our conversation, he is unsure of his future, but wants to do great things. He just needs a little push.

END

References

Kirst-Ashman, K. K., & Hull, G. H., Jr. (2015). Understanding generalist practice (6th ed.). Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning

,

I am interning at an LGBTQ+ community center. The client I had came in was a Caucasian male age 39, because he was homeless and looking for shelter, he stated he was HIV positive and positive for tuberculosis. His medications are expensive, but he needs them to stay alive. He used to be a teacher and traveled in over 50 countries and stated that is how he contracted tuberculosis. The client is mentally drained and has no support.

Our website has a team of professional writers who can help you write any of your homework. They will write your papers from scratch. We also have a team of editors just to make sure all papers are of HIGH QUALITY & PLAGIARISM FREE. To make an Order you only need to click Ask A Question and we will direct you to our Order Page at WriteDemy. Then fill Our Order Form with all your assignment instructions. Select your deadline and pay for your paper. You will get it few hours before your set deadline.

Fill in all the assignment paper details that are required in the order form with the standard information being the page count, deadline, academic level and type of paper. It is advisable to have this information at hand so that you can quickly fill in the necessary information needed in the form for the essay writer to be immediately assigned to your writing project. Make payment for the custom essay order to enable us to assign a suitable writer to your order. Payments are made through Paypal on a secured billing page. Finally, sit back and relax.



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Generate ideas that would improve broadcast radios ability to improve their ratings in this on-demand media era. Instructions: 1. Listen to a commercial radio station in Cincinn


Generate ideas that would improve broadcast radios ability to improve their ratings in this on-demand media era. Instructions: 1.  Listen to a commercial radio station in Cincinn

Goal: Generate ideas that would improve broadcast radio’s ability to improve their ratings in this on-demand media era.

Instructions:

1.  Listen to a commercial radio station in Cincinnati for 2 consecutive hours starting at the top of an hour.

  • I would like you to listen to one of the following stations: WEBN (102.7 FM), WUBE (105.1 FM), WKRQ (101.9) or WIZF (101.1 FM)

2.  Take notes on what you hear including those elements that you like and don’t like.

3.  Write a 500-750 word letter addressed to the leadership of this radio station that communicates:

  • What you found annoying about this broadcast (be specific)
  • What you liked about their broadcast (be specific)
  • Programming and promotional ideas you have for this station that will help them grow their audience in this on-demand media era.

Our website has a team of professional writers who can help you write any of your homework. They will write your papers from scratch. We also have a team of editors just to make sure all papers are of HIGH QUALITY & PLAGIARISM FREE. To make an Order you only need to click Ask A Question and we will direct you to our Order Page at WriteDemy. Then fill Our Order Form with all your assignment instructions. Select your deadline and pay for your paper. You will get it few hours before your set deadline.

Fill in all the assignment paper details that are required in the order form with the standard information being the page count, deadline, academic level and type of paper. It is advisable to have this information at hand so that you can quickly fill in the necessary information needed in the form for the essay writer to be immediately assigned to your writing project. Make payment for the custom essay order to enable us to assign a suitable writer to your order. Payments are made through Paypal on a secured billing page. Finally, sit back and relax.



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Based on the country you have selected (Canada), analyze its health system in terms of cost, quality, and access to care. Discuss how the country you chose is different from the


Based on the country you have selected (Canada), analyze its health system in terms of cost, quality, and access to care. Discuss how the country you chose is different from the

Based on the country you have selected (Canada), analyze its health system in terms of cost, quality, and access to care. Discuss how the country you chose is different from the United States. Politics, culture, wealth, history and environmental factors influence the development and distribution of health services. Your analysis should speak to the following elements:

  • Impact on vulnerable population (elderly, children, mental ill, etc)
  • Women’s health and maternal child health
  • Disease management of communicable and non-communicable diseases
  • The theory and practice of health promotion
  • Behavioral and lifestyle factors that affect health and illness

CHAPTER 17

17.1 INTRODUCTION AND EVALUATION OF THE EIGHT FACTOR MODEL

This discussion brings us to the end of our book journey. It summarizes the importance of the information included in the book and offers concluding remarks about what one country might learn from another. It also explores future leadership considerations that might prove beneficial in moving healthcare delivery toward a brighter future, worldwide. The Eight Factor Model was introduced for the first time in Chapter 3 to familiarize the reader with all aspects of it. The learner is encouraged to review it in greater detail. This table highlights a few of the most striking observations made about the countries included in Chapters 4 – 14 of the book. The observations may be useful in evaluating the extent to which true access is being provided. Healthcare delivery activities, positive and negative, are important considerations in determining true access. For example, although France and Italy are considered to be among the best systems in the world and they are progressively moving in the direction of providing full health care to all its citizens, one might conclude that neither is providing true access . Health care in both countries is costly, there is no consistent plan to care for non-citizens, and Italy has regional disparities. Similarly, countries such as Canada, Ghana, and India are challenged by a greater demand for services than can be provided because of a loss of physicians and nurses to other countries with better compensation packages. Planning and execution of interventions vary widely among countries as does

funding for health care. Both affect the extent to which patients get their healthcare needs met even if they experience no difficulty accessing care.

Table 17-1 Eight Factor Model for true access.

17.2 LESSONS LEARNED In regard to what lessons can be learned from the information discussed throughout the book, much can be said about embracing change with a new mindset. It is apparent that most healthcare systems would benefit from better collaboration and planning about how to maximize their current workforces. They would also benefit from planning new and creative ways to balance the supply of health professionals according to the demand for services. Another consideration is that a strengthbased approach to administering health care might prove beneficial. The obvious response from a larger, more powerful country might be, what can we learn from a developing country? However, by closely examining the strengths of even a relatively poor country, much can be learned. Replicating the country’s successful practices will likely result in better outcomes despite the size or characteristics of the country.

France, a developed nation, is admired as a healthcare leader. Yet, it is looking to other countries for answers in reducing their healthcare costs. In considering the success of France’s health system, lessons might be learned from the less costly United Kingdom system that achieves good outcomes without the extraordinarily higher expenditures.

Interestingly, the United States and Cuba demonstrate the same top three causes of death. A closer examination of the reasons for this might be helpful. The value of international collaboration on healthcare issues could provide insightful information on preventing future illness, and significantly improving health outcomes. Government officials must be transparent about the issues. They must also keep an open mind, and willingly negotiate for practice innovations that first and foremost address the needs of the people. Initiatives must include due diligence toward reforming what is clearly in need of changing in current systems, while retaining the best of what a system has to offer. It is also essential that there be more closely scrutinized bottom lines. That is, the sustainability of government financing of health care can only be made possible if there are serious efforts made to achieve system efficiency and effectiveness.

Another lesson learned is the importance of healthcare systems placing more attention on balancing health promotion, disease prevention, and interventions. Maximizing efforts at boosting preventive measures to keep people healthy, active, and more fully functioning while introducing interventions as early as possible to prevent complications, is essential. The ability to replicate the Cuban model where physician–nurse primary care partnerships are strategically entrenched in communities among the population masses could prove beneficial in that it assists people to remain in their homes and out of the hospitals. Joint crossdisciplinary efforts at improving true access is consistent with a major Healthy People 2010 goal. Providing access to quality services and service equality is of paramount importance in achieving the goal of eliminating healthcare disparities.

17.3 IMPLICATIONS FOR THE 21ST CENTURY LEADER If healthcare delivery systems are to be transformed, it will require an entrepreneurial type leadership that is unapologetically refreshing, risk-taking, motivating, cutting edge, embracing of new ideas and strategies for accomplishing goals, and pro inter-collaboration. The 21st century leader working in health care could emphasize the following seven strategic elements:

• The importance of planning for a stabilized workforce reflecting adequate numbers of well-educated health professionals at every level needed requires some level of risk-taking. We need to ask, are we inviting people who think differently? Are we creating learning organizations in which people feel comfortable expressing their ideas although different from others’? Do we reward people for thinking differently?

• Planning for creating and maintaining a retention oriented environment that thrives for high patient and staff satisfaction. Do we promote a fair and equitable distribution of the workload? Do we promote transparency in the data that are reported? Is the mission of the organization clearly communicated at every level of the organization?

• The need to identify and eliminate unnecessary costs. We need to determine the redundancy in our practices and ask what are the essential services to provide quality outcomes? We also need to ask, what strategies do we have to evaluate our efficiency and effectiveness?

• Ways in which opportunities for continuing education and training can be expanded. We need to ask how we can utilize research to enhance the quality of care through evidence based practice.

• Improving strategies to maximize efforts in providing true access to care. In what way do we continuously assess progress toward the achievement of organizational goals?

• Opportunities to engage in collaborative decision-making. Are industrialized countries open to best practices of developing and vice versa?

• Striving for improved standards. Are our ways of thinking outdated? Or do we look for new ways to improve the delivery of health care?

Each of these elements is important for the effective leader who is focused on moving the healthcare organization well into the 21st century. In the words of Patton (2001), “good practices are only as good as the evidence that supports them and their definition and applicability typically evolves in time and space” (p. ii12).

SUMMARY There is a strong argument in support of needing future healthcare leaders with vision. These leaders must be prepared to change environments. They must also establish better ways to improve effectiveness in approaches to preventing, diagnosing, and treating diseases. With increasing diversity more attention must be given to how we engage patients in their treatment and care. The effects of an aging society and the chronicity of illness and disability make strategic planning a priority. Heightened consumer expectations and demands, including their increased interest in using complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) require that providers be more sensitive to patient needs. Escalation in healthcare costs and budgetary pressures creates new challenges for providing coordinated high quality care.

,

CHAPTER 16

16.1 INTRODUCTION The World Health Organization (WHO) (2001) defines health as a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. A society is known for where it stands globally in regard to the health and wealth of its people. It is also known for where it fits in regard to the rest of the world in other measures of significance. A brief review of selected global comparisons is provided in order to lay the foundation for the discussion of 11 countries presented in Chapters 4 – 14 .

16.2 DETERMINING A COUNTRY’S HEALTH STATUS As the learner begins assessing health outcomes of specific countries, it is important to consider how the country covers the cost of health. Table 16-1 presents the total health expenditures for selective high income countries. Also important is the information provided on population density. Population density is often reported along with other statistics when discussing healthcare accomplishments and challenges experienced by countries. Population density represents the number of people per square mile, or square kilometer (km) derived by dividing the total population per land area by square miles or square km. For example, Canada’s population is 33 million divided by its land area of 3,559,294 square miles yielding a population density of 9.27

people per square mile. It is important to note, however, that because some areas are more densely populated than others, population density is a raw, rather than absolute estimate.

Infant mortality is widely considered one of the most important indicators of a nation’s health status because it reflects such things as maternal health, quality of, and access to, medical care, socioeconomic conditions, and public health practices (MacDorman & Mathews, 2008). It is often one of the first considerations given when evaluating a country’s overall health outcomes.

Table 16-1 Total healthcare expenditure in 2007 for selective high income countries.

Country Percentage of GDP

United States 16.0

France 11.0

Germany 10.4

Canada 10.1

Italy 8.7

United Kingdom 8.4

Japan 8.1*

Data From: Gauthier-Villars, David. France Fights Universal Health Care’s High Cost . The Wall Street Journal, April 7, 2009. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB124958049241511735.html . OECD Health Data 2008. *2006 data reported for Japan

In a report on social determinants of health, Marmot (n.d.) indicates that:

In general, the poor suffer much higher child mortality than the better-off. For example, in India, Indonesia, the Philippines and Vietnam, the under-five mortality rate among the poorest quintile of the population is three times higher compared to the richest quintile. Rural populations usually have worse access to clean water and sanitation facilities, greater risk of malnutrition, and lack educational opportunities. Urban populations however, are plagued with major sanitation problems, overcrowded, unsanitary housing, polluted air, slum and shantytown settlements, that are prevalent throughout the developing world (p. 12).

Clearly health is predicated on so many complex factors that good health outcomes become difficult, if not impossible for many countries to achieve. Further, says Marmot:

Health is a universal human aspiration and a basic human need. The development of society, rich or poor, can be judged by the quality of its population’s health, how fairly health is distributed across the social spectrum, and the degree of protection provided from disadvantage due to ill-health. Health equity is central to this premise. Strengthening health equity—globally and within countries—means going beyond contemporary concentration on the immediate causes of diseases to the ‘causes of the causes’—the fundamental structures of social hierarchy and the socially determined conditions these create in which people grow, live, work, and age. The time for action is now, not just because better health makes economic sense, but because it is right and just (p. 174).

From a global perspective there is great system emphasis on funding acute care initiatives and supporting highly technological infrastructures that seek to cure problems. On the other hand, there is relatively little emphasis on maintaining health and preventing disease. Funding healthcare initiatives in developing and developed countries vary greatly. Decentralization, a term used to describe government control over fiscal and political healthcare decisions at the lowest levels, is often viewed as a positive way to improve service delivery, equity, and quality (WHO, 2008).

However, this is not always the case, as is evidenced by the United State’s federaly funded, state mandated Medicare and Medicaid programs and a current trend toward health reform globally.

16.3 GENERAL TRENDS, SIMILARITIES, AND DIFFERENCES Healthcare systems everywhere, whether they are centralized or decentralized, should be equitable, that is fair, just, and impartial in the treatment of those in need of services. Throughout the industrialized world, health care is universally government provided and controlled. Four examples of this are Canada, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom. Each has government provided, fully funded single payer systems that, with the exception of co-pays and or coinsurance, covers the care for all residents. Consequently, the playing field is leveled between the impoverished and the affluent.

A striking healthcare similarity globally is seen in how countries provide for individuals in need of behavioral/mental health care. The WHO has two programs geared toward achieving better outcomes in mental health care. These are the Mental Health Gap Action Program (mhGAP) and the Mental Health Policy and Service Guidance Package. Countries that utilize these tools are likely to improve their behavioral health and mental health outcomes.

The mhGAP Program aims to scale up services for mental, neurological, and substance use disorders for countries with low and middle incomes. This is a comprehensive program that includes the treatment of psychiatric and mental health problems. The intent is that, when adopted and implemented, tens of millions can be treated for depression, schizophrenia, and epilepsy, prevented from suicide and can begin to lead normal lives—even where resources are scarce (WHO, 2010, p.11). The combined Mental Health Policy and Service Guidance Package is a compilation of 14 user friendly modules with full instructions on how to use them. This package is designed to assist policymakers and planners to accomplish four things: 1) to develop policies and comprehensive strategies for improving the mental health of populations; 2) use existing resources to achieve the greatest possible benefits; 3) provide effective services to those in need, and 4) to assist with the reintegration of persons with mental disorders into all aspects of community life. It is believed that if this is accomplished, the individual’s overall quality of life will be improved (WHO, 2003, p. 1).

Although disease incidence and prevalence varies widely from nation to nation and coast to coast, there are also similarities among countries in that the top ten diseases plaguing countries are usually preventable. In addition, these diseases are costly to treat, recovery is generally slow, there are many years of life lost, and millions of dollars are lost in earned income and productivity (Life

Science, Intelligence, n.d.). The United States outranks other industrialized countries in potential years of life lost due to circulatory problems (773/100,000) and diabetes (99/100,000). Interestingly, for Cuba and the United States, the top three causes of death are identical (see Table 16-2 ). For many countries, industrialized and developing, similar patterns exist. When a person becomes ill in the industrialized world (developed countries), the responses by the more affluent among them might be to simply seek the assistance of a physician or visit the closest hospital, get the appropriate care needed to recover, then proceed with business as usual. For people in the developing world (non-industrialized countries), the situation is not so automatic or simple. Nor is it automatic for many in the industrialized world who are living in poverty, sometimes within the same geographic reach of the affluent, yet far removed from their radar screens.

Although the United States leads the industrialized world in pharmaceutical spending, and healthcare spending per capita, its health outcomes are anything but astounding. In 2006 the United States spent $843 per capita on pharmaceuticals, Canada spent $639, France $564, Germany $500, and all other industrialized countries spent well under $500. The United States’ per capita spending on health care was $6,714 as compared to Canada’s $3,678, France’s $3,449, and the United Kingdom’s $2,760 (OECD, 2008). Healthcare spending in the United States increased from $1.3 trillion in 2000 to $2.4 trillion in 2008. Projections suggest that by 2017, the cost of health care in the United States will reach $4.3 trillion and consume 20% of the GDP (National Coalition on Health Care, 2009). However, despite the disparity in healthcare spending, the United States has poorer outcomes. The World Health Organization’s ratings of healthcare performance among 191 member nations, published in 2000, ranked Canada 30th, and the United States 37th, and the overall health of Canadians 35th and Americans 72nd.

Table 16-2 Health indicators: a comparison between Cuba and the United States.

Indicator Cuba United States

Life Expectancy 77.6 77.8

Physicians per 10,000 population 62.7 26.3

Nurses per 10,000 population 78.9 79.5

Percent Births attended by a skilled health professional

99.9 99.0

Infant Mortality Rate 5.3 6.8

Maternal Mortality Rate 49.4 13.1

Percent of 1 year Immunization to DPT3

99 96

HIV Prevalence Among Adults

15+/100,000 population 52 508

Top Three Cases of Death Heart Disease Malignant Tumors CVA

Heart Disease Malignant Tumors CVA

Sources: Cuban Annual Health Indicators of Health. US, 2006. National Statistics Bureau, Havana

United States Statistics Yearbook, 2006. National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, MD. WHOSIS

The United States leads the world in the number of persons receiving dialysis, total knee replacements, and Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA). It also experiences the most deaths from respiratory diseases such as bronchitis, asthma, and emphysema; and it has

the highest incidence of adult obesity (defined as individuals with BMI >30) (OECD, 2008). Table 16-3 presents the international obesity comparisons for eight countries of which the United States is highest. Mexico, not reflected in the table, ranks second highest and the United Kingdom ranks third highest. Japan is among the lowest obesity ranked countries

Our website has a team of professional writers who can help you write any of your homework. They will write your papers from scratch. We also have a team of editors just to make sure all papers are of HIGH QUALITY & PLAGIARISM FREE. To make an Order you only need to click Ask A Question and we will direct you to our Order Page at WriteDemy. Then fill Our Order Form with all your assignment instructions. Select your deadline and pay for your paper. You will get it few hours before your set deadline.

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Journal: Incorporating Religion and Spirituality in Practice In the past, religion and spirituality sat relatively unexplored and untaught as a practice topic in social work prog


Journal: Incorporating Religion and Spirituality in Practice In the past, religion and spirituality sat relatively unexplored and untaught as a practice topic in social work prog

Journal: Incorporating Religion and Spirituality in Practice

In the past, religion and spirituality sat relatively unexplored and untaught as a practice topic in social work programs (Baylor University, n.d.). The reasoning was, in part, that acknowledging religion could lead to directly or indirectly offending the client. But to disregard religion was likely denying the identities of a large segment of the population.

Now, social workers are tasked with exploring religion and spirituality as potentially influential to the client’s well-being, experiences, and perceptions and to take this dimension into account in treatment. How would you introduce this sensitive topic with clients in your community, and how might you do so without favoring your own beliefs?

For this Journal, you consider how you might grow to better serve specific religious or spiritual populations in your community. You also envision what a conversation about religion with a client might look like.

Reference:
Baylor University. (n.d.). Study: Why social workers aren’t discussing religion and spirituality with clients. https://www.socialworktoday.com/news/dn_072415.shtml

To Prepare
  • Identify the major religions represented in the community where you live and/or work. You can do this be searching online, observing the houses of worship in your area, and/or accessing the Pew Research Center link in the Learning Resources.
  • Imagine you are meeting with a client who is a member of one of the major religions you have identified in your community.
By Day 7

Submit a 1- to 2-page written journal or 4- to 5-minute video or audio journal in which you:

  • Describe your approach for discussing religion with a client in your community, including at least two questions you would ask. Justify your approach using the Learning Resources.
  • Reflect on your comfort and familiarity with religion and spirituality in general. In what ways might you develop to better serve the specific religious and spiritual populations in your community?

Use the Learning Resources to support your thinking. Make sure to provide APA citations and a reference list.

https://socialworkpodcast.blogspot.com/2020/08/Oxhandler.html

Religious Landscape Study

(I’m in the State of Michigan) 

EBSCO Publishing Citation Format: MLA 9th Edition (Modern Language Assoc.):

NOTE: Review the instructions at http://support.ebsco.com/help/?int=eds&lang=en&feature_id=MLA and make any necessary corrections before using. Pay special attention to personal names, capitalization, and dates. Always consult your library resources for the exact formatting and punctuation guidelines.

Works Cited

Wienclaw, Ruth A. “World Religions.” Salem Press Encyclopedia, 2021. EBSCOhost, https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=shib&db=ers&AN=8918 5824&site=eds-live&scope=site&custid=s6527200.

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World Religions

To understand the way people act toward each other, both as individuals and as societies, it is often helpful to understand the religious underpinnings that inform their beliefs and actions. The belongingness that arises from identifying with a religious group has shaped societies and political actions throughout human history. Of world religions today, Christianity and Islam both have roots in the monotheistic beliefs of Judaism. These three major world religions, however, disagree strongly on core tenets of their faiths. Hinduism and Buddhism are other major world religions that are often more tolerant of other beliefs. There are many other belief systems in the world today, ranging from those that see the spiritual in everything around them to those that deny the existence of a higher power or do not believe that such existence can ever be proved. Social scientists study the similarities and differences among major world religions in order to better understand how these belief systems affect societies, cultures, and interactions with others of different beliefs. Religions are institutional systems grounded in the belief in and reverence for a supernatural power or powers considered to have created and to govern the universe. One’s faith informs not only one’s personal belief system, but also one’s actions in the world. Religions often inform one’s ethical and moral belief systems and how one interacts with other people or the greater environment. For many people, religious identity (or lack thereof) also increases one’s feelings of association and belongingness within a group composed of other adherents to the same beliefs. This belongingness not only fulfills a basic human need, but also has political and social

ramifications. For example, in the United States in the early twenty-first century, the conservative Christian right has become a significant voting bloc that may influence politicians and governments to create and enforce laws that conform to their religious beliefs. This belongingness can lead to an “us-them” mentality between different groups, resulting in political sanctions, terrorism, and wars. Christianity, Judaism, and Islam are only three of a large variety of religions and sects that can be found around the world. In general, most countries have dominant religions. One is more likely than not to encounter dissenting or alternative views when discussing religion. There is a great range of religious diversity across the planet not only based on belief systems but also regarding the number of adherents, ranging in the billions for Christianity and Islam to the fewer than a million for Unitarian Universalism and Scientology. Figure 1 summarizes the percentage of adherents to various religions across the globe.

Figure 1: Worldwide Percentage of Adherents by Religion (2010)

The following sections briefly discuss some of the major belief systems and representative religions within each group. There are, of course, other religions in the world. The following discussions are not meant to be a comprehensive review, but to give the reader the salient points that differentiate religions. Major Monotheistic Religions Three of the major religions of the world are monotheistic (i.e., believe in one god) and trace their roots back to the patriarch Abraham: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Although there are commonalities between these religions, they are typically better defined by their differences. Far from being minor (as may appear at first glance to an outsider), to a great extent, these differences define the identities of these groups and have served as the basis for conflicts and wars. Judaism Judaism is the earliest of these three religions. This monotheistic religion traces its roots to the ancient Hebrews and Israelites. The spiritual and ethical principles of Judaism are embodied primarily in the Hebrew Bible (also called the Old Testament by Christians) and the Talmud, a collection of ancient rabbinic writings that form the basis of religious authority for orthodox Jews. Although the story of humanity as described in the Hebrew Bible goes back further, the history of Judaism arguably traces back to God’s promise to the ancient patriarch Abram (later called Abraham) that he would make of him the father of many nations. The Hebrews called God “YHWH,” a name that they did not pronounce out of respect to the supreme being. YHWH’s promise to Abraham included his descendents, Isaac, Jacob, and subsequently all the Jews. One of Jacob’s sons, Joseph, was subsequently sold into slavery in Egypt, where he rose to power under the pharaoh. During a time of famine, Joseph’s 11 brothers came to Egypt in search of food, were reunited with their brother, and stayed. According to the narrative in the Hebrew Bible, their descendents, the Israelites, were eventually enslaved by the Egyptians and then led to freedom by Moses following a series of plagues and the death of the firstborn children of the Egyptians. Jews still commemorate this landmark event by the celebration of Passover. In the twelfth century CE, Moses Maimonides condensed the beliefs of Judaism into a creed. Observant Jews live according to the tenets of the Hebrew Bible as well as the doctrines of the Talmud, a body of rabbinical law tradition. Judaism can be further broken down into several subcategories, including Orthodox, Ultraorthodox, Reformed, and Conservative Judaism. Christianity One of the sticking points between Judaism and the other two major monotheistic religions is the concept of the messiah. The Hebrew term messiah basically means “the anointed one” (christos, or Christ, in Greek). This ever-anticipated figure in Judaism is expected to bring salvation for God’s people (i.e., the Jews) and usher in the Kingdom of God. It is at this point that Christianity and Judaism differ. In its beginnings in the first century CE, Christianity was considered a sect of Judaism that differed from the main body of adherents by their belief that Jesus was not only the expected messiah, or Christ, but also the son of God. Because of this major doctrinal difference, Christians in the first century systematically distanced themselves from the Jews to become a new religion. The belief that Jesus was the expected messiah who came in fulfillment of prophecy, of course, was and is considered heresy by the Jews. According to the Apostles’ Creed, which is still cited by many Christians as a fundamental doctrinal statement, Christians believe in “God the Father Almighty,” creator of both heaven and earth. At this point, both Judaism and Christianity agree. It is at the next statement, however, that these two major monotheistic religions diverge. The Apostles’ Creed goes on to say that Jesus Christ is God’s only son and was conceived by the Holy Spirit and born of the Virgin Mary.

Summarizing the story of the Gospels, the creed goes on to say that Jesus suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, died, and was buried. After his death, the creed states that Jesus descended into hell, rose from the dead on the third day, and ascended into heaven, where he sits at the right hand of the creator, God the Father, and will judge both the living and the dead. Due to various internal disagreements over the past 2,000 years, Christianity can be further broken down into the Eastern (or Orthodox) Church and the Western Church, comprising the Roman Catholic Church and numerous Protestant denominations. It is on the doctrine of the person and substance of Jesus Christ that Christians and Jews differ. Both religions are monotheistic. However, rather than merely believing in God the Creator, Christians believe in the Trinity, or the Godhead of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit believed to be “three persons in one.” In addition, Christians believe that the New Testament is a revelation from God and that it carries as much weight as the Hebrew Bible, a view Jews do not hold. However, based on the teachings of the Christian New Testament itself, most Christians believe that there will be no further body of revelation from God. It is at this point at which the teachings of Islam deviate from those of Christianity. Islam Islam is also a monotheistic religion tracing its roots back to Abraham. As a religion, Islam was founded around 600 CE. The spiritual and ethical principles of Islam are embodied primarily in the Quran. Muslims (the adherents of Islam) believe in Allah to be the sole deity and Mohammad his last and chief prophet. Although believing in the historical Jesus of the Christians, Muslims believe that he was only one in a long line of prophets tracing back through the Hebrew Bible and continuing after Jesus through Mohammed, the greatest in the line of prophets. Because Muslims do not believe that Jesus was God, they do not believe in the doctrine of the Trinity. Although like Judaism and Christianity, Islam traces its origins back to Abraham, a history of Islam actually starts around the turn of the seventh century and the Prophet Mohammed. As he grew older, Mohammed rejected the polytheism that was the predominant religion in his culture and came to believe in only one god, Allah. At the age of 40, Mohammed had his first vision. Mohammed’s revelations are written down in what has come to be known as the Quran. At first, Mohammed was unsure as to the source of these visions. However, his wife encouraged him to believe that they were revelations from God. After Mohammed’s death, Islam separated into several sects as a result of various controversies. One major group is the Sunnis. This orthodox sect accepts the Quran, Islamic traditions, and the four bases of Islamic law. The majority of Muslims are Sunnis. The Shi’a, another major Islamic sect, follows the teachings of Ali, a martyred adherent of early Islam. Part of the Shi’a controversy revolves around the fact that some Muslims believe that only direct descendents of Mohammed could be legitimate caliphs and be given first place in the leadership of Islam. Ali, however, was not of this line. Most of the Muslims in Iran are Shi’a. Another major Islamic sect is the Sufis. This sect of Islamic mystics arose in response to orthodox Islam and often with the secular views of some early Islamic leaders. Probably the best known of the Sufi orders is the Dervishes (i.e., “the whirling Dervishes”). Major Nonmonotheistic Religions Hinduism Despite their familiarity in the West, monotheistic religions are not the only major religions of the world. In fact, worldwide, Hinduism had more adherents than Judaism or any other world religion with the exception of Christianity and Islam, as of 2010, according to the Pew Research Center (See Figure 1). Hinduism is a diverse, polytheistic religion native to India that comprises various religious, philosophical, and social doctrines including dharma (the obligation to fulfill one’s duty), pantheism (equation of God with the forces and laws of the created universe),

reincarnation (the successive rebirth of a soul in a new body in a continuing cycle of progressive perfection or salvation), karma (total effect of an individual’s actions and conduct in successive reincarnations), and nirvana (the final state that transcends suffering and karma). The practice of Hinduism includes various ritual and social observances, often including mystical contemplation and asceticism. Hinduism has a rich and complex history. In fact, it may be better considered as a family of religions rather than a single unified religion. As opposed to the major monotheistic religions discussed above, Hinduism is a universal religion in that it sees sameness in all religions rather than stressing the diversity in them. As a result, Hinduism is tolerant of other religions. The voluminous Hindu scriptures were written over a period of two millennia starting at 1400 BCE. The oldest of the scriptures is called the Vedas, which literally means “wisdom” or “knowledge.” The Vedas contain various hymns, prayers, and rituals that were composed over the first millennium of Hinduism. Another part of the Hindu scriptures is the Upanishads. These are a collection of speculative treatises composed between 800 and 600 BCE. The content of the Upanishads marks a shift in emphasis from sacrifice and magic to mystical ideas about humanity in the universe, in particular the eternal Brahman (the basis of all reality) and the atman (the self or the soul). The Upanishads are said to have a great influence on Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism. The Ramayana comprises one of two major epic tales of India. This work describes the life of Rama, a righteous king who was the incarnation of the god Vishnu. The second epic, the Mahabharata, is the story of the deeds of the Aryan clans. Included in this work is the Bhagavad-Gita (“Song of the Blessed Lord”). The Puranas comprise a collection of legends about gods, goddesses, demons, and ancestors. There are three ways to view the concept of salvation in Hinduism. The way of works (karma marga) is the path of salvation through religious duty. This path to salvation includes performing prescribed ceremonies, duties, and religious rites. It is believed that performing these activities can add favorable karma to one’s merit. The second path to salvation is the way of knowledge (jnana marga). The philosophy underlying this approach to salvation is that human suffering is caused by ignorance and that human nature is at the root of humanity’s problems. According to Hinduism, however, this is an error because humanity is not a separate and real entity. Rather, the only real entity is Brahman. Humanity, therefore, is part of this whole. Similarly, it is believed that this illusion is what causes one to continue to be chained to the wheel of birth, death, and rebirth. The way of knowledge has particular appeal to intellectuals who are willing to go through the prescribed steps. The third approach to salvation in Hinduism is the way of devotion (bhakti marga). The way of devotion requires devotion to a deity through public and private worship. Further, the way of devotion requires that this attitude be extrapolated to human relationships through love of family, love of one’s master, etc. Buddhism Another major world religion is Buddhism. Although Buddhism is found throughout eastern and central Asia, it originated in India about 500 BCE. The impetus for the beginning of the Buddhist belief system was disillusionment with various beliefs of Hinduism, including the caste system and the belief in an endless cycle of birth, death, and rebirth. Siddhartha Gautama, the founder of Buddhism, who was later deified by his disciples, was significantly affected by several encounters in his early life. The first of these was the sight of an old man. The sight was unusual, for the old and infirm had been ordered at that time to stay indoors. When Siddhartha Gautama asked what had happened to the man, he was told that it was only old age and that it would happen to everyone one day. The second encounter that affected Siddhartha Gautama’s outlook was the sight of an ill man. Again, he was told that all people were vulnerable to sickness. The sight of a funeral procession again affected him when he was told that death

comes to all people. The final sight was of a monk who was begging for food. The look of tranquility on the man’s face led Siddhartha Gautama to desire the same life for himself. Although a prince, Siddhartha Gautama left the palace that night to seek enlightenment. One day as he was meditating under a tree, he reached the highest degree of god-consciousness (nirvana). At this point in his story, Siddhartha Gautama becomes known as the Buddha (“enlightened one”). The essence of Buddhism can be summed up by three objectives: cease from all sin, acquire virtue, and purify the heart. Buddhism is based on the philosophy that suffering is a part of life but that one can be liberated from it through moral and mental self-purification. There are a number of fundamental beliefs in Buddhism. First, Buddhists are to show tolerance, forbearance, and brotherly love to all people without distinction as well as kindness toward all animals. The founding truths of Buddhism are founded on the natural world. Buddhists also believe that ignorance fosters desire as well as the belief that rebirth is necessary. Perfection, however, can be obtained by meditation once one learns to let go of the desire to live. As with Hinduism, Buddhism includes the concept of karma. Obstacles to obtaining good karma can be removed by not killing, stealing, indulging in forbidden sexual pleasure, lying, and drinking alcohol or taking drugs. Other Approaches There are also many primal/indigenous religions across the world. This term comprises a general category of religious practice and belief usually found in primitive societies. Primal/indigenous religions are based on beliefs, superstitions, and rituals that are passed on from one generation to the next within a specific culture. Primal/indigenous religions include animism (attribution of conscious life to nature or natural objects) and shamanism (animistic religion in which mediation between the visible and spirit worlds is mediated by shamans who practice magic for purposes of healing, divination, and control over natural events). Some examples of primal/indigenous approaches to religion include the religious beliefs of the North American natives and of traditional African tribes. Agnosticism & Atheism There is a vast array across the globe of other religions with fewer adherents, each with its own belief system. However, not everyone believes. Although most people in the world ascribe to various religious belief systems, a significant number do not. Of these, there are those who are open to the possibility of a higher power and those who are not. Agnostics believe that any ultimate reality is unknown and unknowable. From a religious point of view, therefore, agnostics do not confirm or deny the existence of God and further believe that no proof of God’s existence can exist. Agnostics are distinguished from atheists, who actively disbelieve in or deny the existence of any higher power. As with religious beliefs, these belief systems also affect the way that people act. Nonbelievers represent a significant proportion of individuals in twenty-first-century postmodern society. Like their religious counterparts, the beliefs (or lack thereof) of nonbelievers also help shape society. Applications Since the turn of the twenty-first century, the terrorist attacks of 9/11 by radical Islamists, schism in the Anglican and Episcopal Churches, and the unusual and often illegal activities of various sects and cults have created news headlines implicating the role of religion in these events. Religion can be the stuff of controversy with one group arguing with another over who is right and who is wrong. The attacks on the USS Cole, the World Trade Center, and the London Underground and Tavistock Square were all done in the name of religion. So, too, is the fighting of the Israelis and the Palestinians as well as the national Chinese persecution of the Falun Gong sect. Although it would be easy to think that these contemporary examples herald a

disintegration of society, students of history know that they are actually chillingly reminiscent of other religion-inspired events of the past: the Crusades, the martyrdom of the early Christians, the pogroms against Jews in eastern Europe, and the conflicts between Hindus and Muslims on the Indian subcontinent, among others. Viewpoints Religion is an important factor in the way that individuals and groups act. Behavioral and social scientists need to understand the role of religion in causing behavior including not only disagreements over spiritual truth, but perhaps even more importantly over the ethics and mores that permeate people’s lives and inform their behavior. The belief systems held by adherents of a religion are often more than a matter of personal preference. For example, the caste system of Hinduism that has traditionally permeated Indian society specifies among other things what types of jobs members of certain castes can hold. Similarly, many Middle Eastern countries are considered Islamic not only because the majority of their citizens are Muslims, but also because the very laws governing these societies are themselves Islamic in nature. As is well illustrated by the frequent conflicts throughout history between the three major monotheistic religions, even religions that hold in common certain basic tenets may disagree violently about other core beliefs and values. Therefore, it would be inappropriate in most cases to link these together as a single group for research or theoretical purposes. Similarly, differences over beliefs even within sects and denominations of a particular religion can make categorization into a unified group ill advised. When theorizing about the theoretical underpinnings of religions or their impact on culture and society, it is extremely important to carefully and operationally define one’s terms based on the differences articulated between adherents of various sects or religions. Otherwise, research results can be misleading and theories unlikely to reflect real world realities. Religion is an important motivator not only for individual human behavior but also for the behavior of individuals within groups. One’s belief system affects not only how the person acts in one-on-one situations with others, but also how adherents of one religion treat those of other religions. In some cases, this can be tolerance and acceptance. In other cases, however, it is intolerance and conflict. Many religions are not unified and have multiple belief systems even when they have common core values. In order for social science research into religion to be meaningful, researchers and theorists must carefully and operationally define the terms that they used to describe members of a religion. Terms & Concepts Denomination: A large group of congregations united under a common statement of faith and organized under a single legal and administrative hierarchy. Many individual congregations include the name of their denomination in the title of their church (e.g., First Baptist Church, St. Luke’s Lutheran Church). Doctrine: A principle (or body of principles) accepted or believed by a religious group. Monotheism: The doctrine or belief in only one god. Mysticism: A belief in the existence and experience of realities that cannot be perceptually or intellectually apprehended but that can be directly accessed through subjective experience. Because mystic realities are beyond both perception and intellect, mystics typically find it difficult or impossible to articulate their experience to others. Operational Definition: A definition that is stated in terms that can be observed and measured. Orthodoxy: Beliefs or teachings that are in accordance with the accepted or traditional teachings of an established faith or religion. (cf. orthodoxy) Polytheism: The belief and worship of multiple gods.

Religion: A personal or institutional system grounded in the belief in and reverence for a supernatural power or powers considered to have created and to govern the universe. Sect: A distinct subgroup united by common beliefs or interests within a larger group. In religion, sects typically have separated from the larger denomination. Bibliography Ammerman, N. T. (2010). The challenges of pluralism: Locating religion in a world of diversity. Social Compass, 57(2), 154-167. Retrieved November 7, 2013 from EBSCO online database SocINDEX with Full Text. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=sih&AN=51674171 Borowik, I. (2011). The changing meanings of religion: Sociological theories of religion in the perspective of the last 100 years. International Review of Sociology, 21(1), 175-189. Retrieved November 7, 2013 from EBSCO online database SocINDEX with Full Text. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=sih&AN=59702984 Brown, R. R., & Brown, R. (2011). The challenge of religious pluralism: The association between interfaith contact and religious pluralism. Review of Religious Research, 53(3), 323-340. Retrieved November 7, 2013 from EBSCO online database SocINDEX with Full Text. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=sih&AN=67364097 Bruce, S. (2011). Defining religion: A practical response. International Review of Sociology, 21(1), 107-120. Retrieved November 7, 2013 from EBSCO online database SocINDEX with Full Text. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=sih&AN=59702988 Goujon, A. (2014). The World’s Religions in Figures: An Introduction to International Religious Demography. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 53(2), 446–47. Retrieved January 22, 2015, from EBSCO Online Database SocINDEX with Full Text. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=sih&AN=96408270&site=ehost-live&sc ope=site Johnston, E. (2013). Mapping Religion and Spirituality in a Postsecular World. Sociology of Religion, 74(4), 549–50. Retrieved January 22, 2015, from EBSCO Online Database SocINDEX with Full Text. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=sih&AN=93066129&site=ehost-live&sc ope=site McDowell, J., & Stewart, D. (1983). Handbook of today’s religions. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers. Martin, J. P. (2005). The three monotheistic world religions and international human rights. Journal of Social Issues, 61(4), 827-845. Retrieved May 14, 2008 from EBSCO online database SocINDEX with Full Text http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=sih&AN=18856403&site=ehost-live. Matthews, W. (2006). World religions. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing. National and World Religion Statistics, Church Statistics, World Religions. Retrieved May 12, 2008 from: http://www.adherents.com/. Suggested Reading Beye, P. (2013). Religion in the context of globalization: Essays on concept, form, and political implication. Abingdon, England: Routledge. Retrieved November 7, 2013 from EBSCO online database eBook Collection (EBSCOhost). http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=615559&site=ehost-live Healey, S. (2005). Religion and terror: A post-9/11 analysis. International Journal on World Peace, 22(3), 3-23. Retrieved May 12, 2008 from EBSCO online database SocINDEX with Full Text: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=sih&AN=19754697&site=ehost-live

Lee, M. R. (2006). The religious institutional base and violent crime in rural areas. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 45(3), 573-579. Retrieved May 12, 2008 from EBSCO online database SocINDEX with Full Text: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=sih&AN=21936858&site=ehost-live Miles, J., Doniger, W., Lopez, D. S., & Robson, J. (2015). The Norton anthology of world religions (Vols. 1–2). New York, NY: W.W. Norton, 2015. Sharot, S. (2001). A comparative sociology of world religions: Virtuosos, priests and popular religion. New York, NY: New York University Press. Turner, J. (2006). Contemporary religious violence: Rational reaction to the brutality of globalization. Conference Papers — American Sociological Association, 2006 Annual Meeting, Montreal, 1-19. Retrieved May 12, 2008 from EBSCO online database SocINDEX with Full Text: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=sih&AN=26641956&site=ehost-live Walsh, T. G. (2012). Religion, peace and the postsecular public sphere. International Journal on World Peace, 29(2), 35-61. Retrieved November 7, 2013 from EBSCO online database SocINDEX with Full Text. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=sih&AN=77369830 ~~~~~~~~ Essay by Ruth A. Wienclaw, Ph.D

Dr. Ruth A. Wienclaw holds a Doctorate in Industrial/Organizational Psychology with a specialization in Organization Development from the University of Memphis. She is the owner of a small business that works with organizations in both the public and private sectors, consulting on matters of strategic planning, training, and human/systems integration.

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The United States Department of Transportation regulates that certain employees engaged in oil and gas pipeline operations are required to submit to random drug testing. The emp


The United States Department of Transportation regulates that certain employees engaged in oil and gas pipeline operations are required to submit to random drug testing.  The emp

500 words

The United States Department of Transportation regulates that certain employees engaged in oil and gas pipeline operations are required to submit to random drug testing.  The employee does not have to be suspected of drug use before being tested.  Review the documents found at https://www.transportation.gov/odapc.  

If the employees challenge this rule in court, will the rule be upheld?  What is a police state?  If the United States were a police state, privacy and other rights that we often take for granted could be commonplace and easily justified in the interest of security.  If that were the situation, would a case like this one have even come before a court?  What is a safety sensitive position?  Why are these positions highly regulated?  What advantages are there to an employer to use basic principles of fairness in investigating and disciplining employees?  Do you think that employees who feel that they are being treated fairly will likely be more productive and more loyal than employees who are arguably mistreated?  Why or why not? 

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Fill in all the assignment paper details that are required in the order form with the standard information being the page count, deadline, academic level and type of paper. It is advisable to have this information at hand so that you can quickly fill in the necessary information needed in the form for the essay writer to be immediately assigned to your writing project. Make payment for the custom essay order to enable us to assign a suitable writer to your order. Payments are made through Paypal on a secured billing page. Finally, sit back and relax.



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