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Find an example of a fallacy used in popular advertising or any persuasive text. Upload the image/words or provide a link. 2) Identify the fall


Find an example of a fallacy used in popular advertising or any persuasive text. Upload the image/words or provide a link. 2) Identify the fall

moo41025_fm_i-xxvi.indd i 12/10/19 01:23 PM

Thirteenth Edition

Brooke Noel Moore Richard Parker California State University, Chico

with help in Chapter 12 from Nina Rosenstand and Anita Silvers

Critical Thinking

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CRITICAL THINKING

Published by McGraw-Hill Education, 2 Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10121. Copyright © 2021 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Previous editions © 2017, 2015, and 2012. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education, including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning.

Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the United States.

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 LWI 24 23 22 21 20

ISBN 978-1-260-57069-4 MHID 1-260-57069-X

Cover Image: McGraw-Hill

All credits appearing on page or at the end of the book are considered to be an extension of the copyright page.

The Internet addresses listed in the text were accurate at the time of publication. The inclusion of a website does not indicate an endorsement by the authors or McGraw-Hill Education, and McGraw-Hill Education does not guarantee the accuracy of the information presented at these sites.

mheducation.com/highered

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Chapter 1 Driving Blindfolded 1

Chapter 2 Two Kinds of Reasoning 35

Chapter 3 Clear Thinking, Critical Thinking, and Clear Writing 73

Chapter 4 Credibility 102

Chapter 5 Rhetoric, the Art of Persuasion 141

Chapter 6 Relevance (Red Herring) Fallacies 185

Chapter 7 Induction Fallacies 207

Chapter 8 Formal Fallacies and Fallacies of Language 233

Chapter 9 Deductive Arguments I: Categorical Logic 257

Chapter 10 Deductive Arguments II: Truth-Functional Logic 305

Chapter 11 Inductive Reasoning 362

Chapter 12 Moral, Legal, and Aesthetic Reasoning 420

Brief Contents

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Contents

Preface xviii Changes to the 13th Edition  xix Acknowledgments xxi About the Authors xxiv

Chapter 1 Driving Blindfolded 1 Beliefs and Claims 4

Objective Claims and Subjective Judgments 4

Fact and Opinion 6

Relativism 7

Moral Subjectivism 7

Issues 7

Arguments 8

Cognitive Biases 15

Truth and Knowledge 21

What Critical Thinking Can and Can’t Do 22

A Word About the Exercises 22

Recap 23

Additional Exercises 24

Answers and Tips 33

Chapter 2 Two Kinds of Reasoning 35 Arguments: General Features 35

Conclusions Used as Premises 36

Unstated Premises and Conclusions 36

Two Kinds of Arguments 37

Deductive Arguments 37

Inductive Arguments 38

Beyond a Reasonable Doubt 40

Two Kinds of Deductive Arguments 40

Four Kinds of Inductive Arguments 41

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vi CONTENTS

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Telling the Difference Between Deductive and Inductive Arguments 42

Deduction, Induction, and Unstated Premises 44

Balance of Considerations 46

Not Premises, Conclusions, or Arguments 46

Selfies (and Other Pictures) 46

If . . . Then . . . Sentences 47

Lists of Facts 47

“A because B” 48

Ethos, Pathos, and Logos 48

Techniques for Understanding Arguments 53

Clarifying an Argument’s Structure 54

Distinguishing Arguments from Window Dressing 56

Evaluating Arguments 57

Recap 57

Additional Exercises 58

Answers and Tips 68

Chapter 3 Clear Thinking, Critical Thinking, and Clear Writing 73

Vagueness 74

Ambiguity 76

Semantic Ambiguity 77

Grouping Ambiguity 77

Syntactic Ambiguity 77

Generality 79

Defining Terms 84

Purposes of Definitions 84

Kinds of Definitions 85

Tips on Definitions 85

Writing Argumentative Essays 87

Good Writing Practices 89

Essay Types to Avoid 89

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CONTENTS vii

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Persuasive Writing 90

Writing in a Diverse Society 91

Recap 92

Additional Exercises 92

Answers and Tips 100

Chapter 4 Credibility 102 The Believability of Claims 103

Does the Claim Conflict with Personal Observation? 104

Does the Claim Conflict with Our Background Information? 107

Might the Claim Reinforce Our Biases? 108

The Credibility of Sources 111

Interested Parties 111

Physical and Other Characteristics 112

Expertise 113

The News 118

Mainstream News Media 118

Advertising 126

Three Kinds of Ads 126

Recap 129

Additional Exercises 130

Answers and Tips 139

Chapter 5 Rhetoric, the Art of Persuasion 141 Rhetorical Force 142

Rhetorical Devices I 143

Euphemisms and Dysphemisms 143

Weaselers 144

Downplayers 144

Rhetorical Devices II 146

Stereotypes 147

Innuendo 148

Loaded Questions 149

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viii CONTENTS

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Rhetorical Devices III 150

Ridicule/Sarcasm 150

Hyperbole 151

Rhetorical Devices IV 151

Rhetorical Definitions and Rhetorical Explanations 152

Rhetorical Analogies and Misleading Comparisons 153

Proof Surrogates and Repetition 157

Proof Surrogates 157

Repetition 157

Persuasion Through Visual Imagery 161

The Extreme Rhetoric of Demagoguery 162

Recap 166

Additional Exercises 167

Answers and Tips 183

Chapter 6 Relevance (Red Herring) Fallacies 185 Argumentum Ad Hominem 186

Poisoning the Well 187

Guilt by Association 187

Genetic Fallacy 187

Straw Man 188

False Dilemma (Ignoring Other Alternatives) 189

The Perfectionist Fallacy 190

The Line-Drawing Fallacy 190

Misplacing the Burden of Proof 191

Begging the Question (Assuming What You Are Trying to Prove) 193

Appeal to Emotion 194

Argument from Outrage 194

Scare Tactics 195

Appeal to Pity 196

Other Appeals to Emotion 197

Irrelevant Conclusion 198

Recap 200

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CONTENTS ix

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Exercises 200

Answers and Tips 206

Chapter 7 Induction Fallacies 207 Generalizations 207

Generalizing from Too Few Cases (Hasty Generalization) 208

Generalizing from Exceptional Cases 210

Accident 211

Weak Analogy 212

Mistaken Appeal to Authority 213

Mistaken Appeal to Popularity (Mistaken Appeal to Common Belief) 214

Mistaken Appeal to Common Practice 215

Bandwagon Fallacy 216

Fallacies Related to Cause and Effect 217

Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc 217

Cum Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc 221

Slippery Slope 223

Untestable Explanation 224

Line-Drawing Again 225

Recap 225

Exercises 225

Answers and Tips 232

Chapter 8 Formal Fallacies and Fallacies of Language 233

Three Formal Fallacies: Affirming the Consequent, Denying the Antecedent, and Undistributed Middle 233

Affirming the Consequent 233

Denying the Antecedent 234

The Undistributed Middle 235

The Fallacies of Equivocation and Amphiboly 237

The Fallacies of Composition and Division 239

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x CONTENTS

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Confusing Explanations with Excuses 240

Confusing Contraries and Contradictories 242

Consistency and Inconsistency 244

Miscalculating Probabilities 244

Incorrectly Combining the Probability of Independent Events 245

Gambler’s Fallacy 246

Overlooking Prior Probabilities 247

Faulty Inductive Conversion 247

Recap 249

Additional Exercises 250

Answers and Tips 256

Chapter 9 Deductive Arguments I: Categorical Logic 257 Categorical Claims 259

Venn Diagrams 260

Translation into Standard Form (Introduction) 261

Translating Claims in Which the Word “Only” or the Phrase “The Only” Occurs 262

Translating Claims About Times and Places 263

Translating Claims About Specific Individuals 264

Translating Claims that Use Mass Nouns 265

The Square of Opposition 268

Existential Assumption and the Square of Opposition 268

Inferences Across the Square 268

Three Categorical Relations 269

Conversion 269

Obversion 270

Contraposition 270

Categorical Syllogisms 278

The Venn Diagram Method of Testing for Validity 279

Existential Assumption in Categorical Syllogisms 282

Categorical Syllogisms with Unstated Premises 284

Real-Life Syllogisms 285

The Rules Method of Testing for Validity 289

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CONTENTS xi

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Recap 291

Additional Exercises 291

Answers and Tips 301

Chapter 10 Deductive Arguments II: Truth-Functional Logic 305

Truth Tables and Logical Symbols 306

Claim Variables 306

Truth Tables 306

Symbolizing Compound Claims 312

“If” and “Only If” 312

Necessary and Sufficient Conditions 314

“Unless” 316

“Either . . . Or” 316

Truth-Functional Argument Patterns (Brief Version) 318

Three Common Valid Argument Patterns 319

Three Mistakes: Invalid Argument Forms 322

Truth-Functional Arguments (Full Version) 325

The Truth-Table Method 326

The Short Truth-Table Method 328

Deductions 334

Group I Rules: Elementary Valid Argument Patterns 334

Group II Rules: Truth-Functional Equivalences 339

Conditional Proof 347

Recap 350

Additional Exercises 351

Answers and Tips 358

Chapter 11 Inductive Reasoning 362 Argument from Analogy 362

Evaluation of Arguments from Analogy 363

Three Arguments from Analogy 365

Other Uses of Analogy 366

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xii CONTENTS

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Generalizing from a Sample 371

Evaluation of Arguments That Generalize from a Sample 372

Three Arguments That Generalize from a Sample 372

Scientific Generalizing from a Sample 373

De-generalizing (Reverse Generalizing; the Statistical Syllogism) 375

Causal Statements and Their Support 382

Forming Causal Hypotheses 382

Weighing Evidence 384

Confirming Causal Hypotheses 395

Inference to the Best Explanation 399

Reasoning from Cause to Effect 401

Calculating Statistical Probabilities 402

Joint Occurrence of Independent Events 402

Alternative Occurrences 403

Expectation Value 403

Calculating Conditional Probabilities 404

Causation in the Law 406

Recap 407

Additional Exercises 408

Answers and Tips 416

Chapter 12 Moral, Legal, and Aesthetic Reasoning 420 Value Judgments 421

Moral Versus Nonmoral 422

Two Principles of Moral Reasoning 422

Moral Principles 424

Deriving Specific Moral Value Judgments 424

Major Perspectives in Moral Reasoning 427

Consequentialism 427

Duty Theory/Deontologism 429

Moral Relativism 430

Religious Relativism 432

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CONTENTS xiii

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Religious Absolutism 432

Virtue Ethics 432

Moral Deliberation 435

Legal Reasoning 439

Justifying Laws: Four Perspectives 441

Aesthetic Reasoning 444

Eight Aesthetic Principles 444

Using Aesthetic Principles to Judge Aesthetic Value 447

Evaluating Aesthetic Criticism: Relevance and Truth 448

Why Reason Aesthetically? 450

Recap 452

Additional Exercises 453

Answers and Tips 455

Appendix: Selected Exercises from Previous Editions 457

Glossary 480

Index 488

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moo41025_fm_i-xxvi.indd xiv 12/10/19 01:23 PM

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Effective, efficient studying. Connect helps you be more productive with your study time and get better grades using tools like SmartBook 2.0, which highlights key concepts and creates a personalized study plan. Connect sets you up for success, so you walk into class with confidence and walk out with better grades.

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More Engaging

Moore & Parker are known for fresh and lively writing. They rely on their own classroom experience and on feedback from instructors in getting the correct balance between

explication and example.

■ ■ Examples and exercises are drawn from today’s headlines.

■ ■ Students learn to apply critical thinking skills to situ- ations in a wide variety of areas: advertising, poli- tics, the media, popular culture.

Critical Thinking . . . Skills for

First Pages

Co Gn ITIv E BIASES 19

moo41025_ch01_001-032.indd 19 09/06/19 12:33 PM

impossible to think that good judgment or rational thought would lead them to such excess.*

Yet another possible source of psychological distortion is the overconfidence effect, one of several self-deception biases that may be found in a variety of contexts.** If a person estimates the percentage of his or her correct answers on a subject, the esti- mate will likely err on the high side—at least if the questions are difficult or the subject matter is unfa- miliar.† Perhaps some manifestation of the overcon- fidence effect explains why, in the early stages of the American Idol competition, many contestants appear totally convinced they will be crowned the next American Idol—and are speechless when the judges inform them they cannot so much as carry a tune.††

Closely related to the overconfidence effect is the better-than-average illusion. The illusion crops up when most of a group rate themselves as better than most of the group relative to some desirable charac- teristics, such as resourcefulness or driving ability. The classic illustration is the 1976 survey of SAT tak- ers, in which well over 50 percent of the respondents rated themselves as better than 50 percent of other SAT takers with respect to such qualities as leader- ship ability.‡ The same effect has been observed when people estimate how their intelligence, memory, or job performance stacks up with the intelligence, memory, and job performances of other members of their profession or workplace. In our own informal surveys, more than 80 percent of our students rate themselves in the top 10 percent of their class with respect to their ability to think critically.

Unfortunately, evidence indicates that even when they are informed about the better-than-average illusion, people may still rate themselves as better than most in their ability to not be subject to it.‡‡

‡‡http://weblamp.princeton.edu/ psych/f ACUl TY/Articles/Pronin/The%20Bias%20Blind.PDf . The better-than-average bias has not been found to hold for all positive traits. In some things, people underestimate their abilities. The moral is that for many abilities, we are probably not the best judges of how we compare to others. And this includes our ability to avoid being subject to biasing influences.

‡See Mark D. Alicke and other authors in “The Better-Than-Average Effect,” in Mark D. Alicke and others, The Self in Social Judgment: Studies in Self and Identity (new York: Psychology Press, 2005), 85–106. The better-than-average illusion is sometimes called the l ake Wobegon effect, in reference to Garrison Keillor’s story about the fictitious Minnesota town “where all the children are above average.”

††This possibility was proposed by Gad Saad, Psychology Today, www.psychologytoday.com/blog/homo-consumericus/200901/ self-deception-american-idol-is-it-adaptive.

†See Sarah lichtenstein and other authors, “ Calibration of Probabilities: The State of the Art to 1980, ” in Daniel Kahneman, Paul Slovic, and Amos Tversky, Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1982), 306–34.

**However, a universal tendency among humans to irrationally exaggerate their own competencies hasn’t been established. for an online quiz purportedly showing the overconfidence effect, see www.tim-richardson.net/joomla15/finance-articles-profmenu- 70/73-over-confidence-test.html.

*Jamey Keaton, Associated Press. Reported in The Sacramento Bee, Thursday, March 18, 2010. Did the subjects suspect the shocks weren’t real? Their statements afterward don’t rule out the possibility but certainly seem to suggest they believed they truly were administering painful electrical shocks to the actor.

■ Does Kim Kardashian wear too much makeup? The issue is subjective, or, as some people say, “a matter of opinion.”

Stephen l ovekin/WWD/ Shutterstock

Confirming Pages

moo41025_ch07_207-232.indd 216 11/05/19 06:15 PM

216 CHAPTER 7 : InduCTIon FAllA CIES

Bandwagon Fallacy Sometimes a speaker or writer will try to get us to do something by suggesting that every- one or most people are doing it. The idea is not to cite what people believe as evidence of the truth of a claim. Rather, the attempt is made to induce us to do something by mak- ing us feel out of step with things if we don’t. This is the infamous Bandwagon Fallacy, illustrated by this example:

Appealing to Tradition

According to Representative Steve King of Iowa (pictured here), “Equal protection [under the Constitution] is not equal protection for same sex couples to marry. Equal protection has always been for a man and a woman to be able to get married to each other.”

YuRI GRIPAS/uPI/newscom Pete Marovich/ZuMAPRESS. com/newscom

I am the most popular candidate by far. Only a minority support my opponent.

The speaker wants us to jump on the bandwagon. He or she has not said anything that is relevant to who we should support or how we should vote.

Here is one more example:

Let’s get a spa. They are very popular these days.

The speaker hasn’t really shown that we need a spa. He wants us to get on the bandwagon.

More Relevant

Moore & Parker spark student interest in skills that will serve them throughout their lives, making the study of critical thinking a meaning- ful endeavor.

■ ■ Boxes show students how critical thinking skills are relevant to their day-to-day lives.

■ ■ Striking visuals in every chapter show stu- dents how images affect our judgment and shape our thinking.

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More Student Success

Moore & Parker provide a path to student suc- cess, making students active participants in their own learning while teaching skills they can apply in all their courses.

■ ■ Learning objectives link to chapter sections and in turn to print and online activities, so that students can immediately assess their mastery of the learning objective.

■ ■ Exercises are dispersed throughout most chapters, so that they link tightly with the concepts as they are presented.

■ ■ Students have access to over 2,000 exer- cises that provide practice in applying their skills.

the course. Skills for life. First Pages

moo41025_ch08_223-246.indd 240 09/19/19 02:23 PM

240 CHAPTER 8: FoRMAl FAllA CIEs ANd FAllA CIEs o F lANG u AGE

Exercise 8-4 Here are 107 examples of the fallacies discussed in this chapter. Match each item to one or more of the following categories or otherwise answer as indicated:

a. affirming the consequent b. denying the antecedent c. undistributed middle fallacy d. confusing explanations with excuses e. equivocation f. composition g. division h. miscalculating probabilities

Note

Your instructor may or may not ask you to further assign miscalculating probabilities into the following subcategories: Incorrectly combining the probabilities of indepen- dent events, the gambler’s fallacy, overlooking prior probabilities, and faulty inductive conversion.

1. Professor Parker can tell you if you are sick; after all, he is a doctor.

2. If this man is the president, then he believes in immigration reform. If this man is vice president, then he believes in immigration reform. Therefore, if this man is president, then he is vice president.

3. If global warming is for real, then the mean global temperature will have risen over the past ten years. And that is what happened. Therefore, global warming is for real.

4. My chance of being born on December 25 was the same as yours. So the chances we were both born on December 25 have to be twice as good.

5. Sodium is deadly poisonous, and so is chlorine. Salt consists of sodium and chlo- rine, which must be why we’re told not to eat too much of it.

6. The Bible commands you to leave life having made the world a better place. And therefore it commands you to make the world a better place each and every day.

7. A dialogue: JILL: Helen has her mother’s eyes. BILL: Good lord! Can the woman still see?

8. Is an explanation clearly being offered as an excuse/justification? I didn’t buy tick- ets to see Chris Angel’s show because I heard that he spends half his act with his shirt off strutting around in front of the ladies in the audience.

9. If Congress changes marijuana from a Class 1 drug to something lesser, next year the penalties for possession will be much less than they are now. But Congress is not going to declassify marijuana this year. So we’ll have to live with the drastic penalties for at least another year.

10. If you are rich, then your car is something like a Mercedes or a Bentley. Oh! Is that your Bentley, you rich old thing, you?

11. Man! Three sons in a row? Your next kid is bound to be a girl.

Additional Exercises

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I t is remarkable how much university students have changed over the decades since we first began teaching in our 20s. Back then they called us by our first names or even “Dude.” Nowadays they call us “Sir,” as in, “Sir, do you need help?” They are also better informed. Thanks to Instagram and Snapchat and other

sources of breaking news, they know what friends are doing and thinking at any given moment.

Educators seem not to agree on what exactly critical thinking is, though they do agree that, whatever it is, we can use more of it. They also agree that being informed is important, though what they think is important to be informed about doesn’t necessar- ily include how Emily did her nails or what Jacob thinks about the new Starbucks cups.

You have to wonder. How can teachers compete with such stimulating infor- mation? Critical thinking instruction is fairly abstract. It doesn’t deal with topics. In this book, we don’t discuss whether someone’s a good president or if global climate is changing. Rather, we offer instruction on good and bad reasoning. We try to help read- ers develop facility in spotting irrelevancies, emotional appeals, empty rhetoric, and weak evidence. To compete with distractions, we offer examples and exercises we hope first-year university students can understand and relate to, and we try to be as concise and readable as possible.

What, by the way, is our definition of critical thinking? This is something we go into more in Chapter 1; for now, let’s just point out that critical thinking is aimed at mak- ing wise decisions about what to think and do. This book is not about critical thinking as much as it is a book in critical thinking. We try to provide guided practice in what we think are the most important critical thinking skill sets. Although as authors we dif- fer somewhat in our emphasis, we both agree (as do many instructors) that drill-and- practice is useful in improving students’ critical thinking ability. Online technology can be helpful when it comes to drill-and-practice, as well as in enabling students to learn at their own pace. (Details coming up shortly). But if you don’t use online assignment, practice, and assessment platforms such as ours, this text contains hundreds and hun- dreds of exercises of the sort that (we think) can be applied directly to the world at large. Exercise questions are all answered in the answer sections at the end of each chapter.

If you use this text or the online peripherals, we would appreciate hearing from you. We can both be

 1) Find an example of a fallacy used in popular advertising or any persuasive text. Upload the image/words or provide a link.

2) Identify the fallacy and why you think that this particular type of advertisement represents the fallacy that you have chosen.

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