02 Feb For this Assignment, imagine yourself as Rays social worker. Though you wont be interviewing him, you have learned a great deal
For this Assignment, imagine yourself as Ray’s social worker. Though you won’t be interviewing him, you have learned a great deal about his story in videos throughout the course. Now, in this Assignment, you apply that learning to identify, categorize, and record important information about Ray’s development in a bio-psychosocial assessment.
By Day 7
Using the template, submit bio-psychosocial assessment focusing on Ray. The assessment should be written in professional language and cover the following sections:
- Presenting issue (including referral source)
- Demographic information
- Current living situation
- Birth and developmental history
- School and social relationships
- Family members and relationships
- Health and medical issues (including biological, psychological, and psychiatric functioning and substance use)
- Spiritual and cultural development
- Social, community, and recreational activities
- Client strengths, capacities, and resources
At the end of the document:
- Include a summary and analysis of the overall challenges experienced by the client and how the social environment has contributed to those challenges. Describe how this analysis of the social environment would be beneficial to treatment and goal-setting.
- Then, describe two goals that you can work on with this client based on the assessment. Explain why these goals are appropriate and relevant to the case in addressing the presenting issue and challenges.
Please use the Learning Resources and additional research to support your analysis. Make sure to provide APA citations and a reference list
Meet Ray. Age 17 to 18
© 2021 Walden University, LLC 1
Meet Ray. Age 17 to 18 Program Transcript
NARRATOR: Ray gains self-confidence from exercising, socializing with the other team
workers at his part-time fast-food job, and honing his woodworking skills he graduates
high school. Ray applies to college with the support of his teacher-mentor and gets a full
scholarship. He would be the first in his family to attend college.
However, his father George becomes sick with lung cancer the summer before his
freshman year of college. Ray doesn’t know where to turn. He is estranged from his
father’s side of the family due to a fight George had with his brother years ago. His
mother’s side of the family do not live in the area, and he’s never had a close
relationship with them. He feels a sense of obligation to George and guilt for what he’d
said about wishing him dead, ray never leaves for college, letting the scholarship lapse.
He stays and cares for his father until George dies four months later.
Now 18, Ray lives alone with a rescue pit bull named Daisy. He has maintained his fast-
food job, but after George’s death, he begins to show up at work late, unshowered, and
occasionally drunk. Ray’s boss tells him that he understands he’s grieving, but he can’t
show up in that state. The boss puts him on probation. If he is late, skips work, or shows
up inebriated again, he will be fired.
If Ray loses his job, his housing will be in jeopardy as well. Ray’s work friends
encourage him to see a social worker.
© 2021 Walden University, LLC 1
Meet Ray Program Transcript
FEMALE SPEAKER: Meet Ray. Ray is a full-term baby of normal length and weight,
born to working-class Caucasian parents living in a suburban area. As an, infant he
stops breathing on several occasions, which the emergency room doctor says may be
due to the effects of secondhand smoke. Both Ray’s mother, Mary, and father, George,
smoke in the apartment.
In his early years, Ray forms a strong bond with Mary, who is loving and nurturing.
However, she works two part-time cashiering jobs to support the family and is not often
home. George is stern and often yells and loses patience with Ray.
At age 6, Ray regularly hears his parents fighting when he is trying to sleep, usually
over money and the demands of parenting. Ray interprets his father’s anger as not
wanting me. When Ray enters public school, the nurse helps Ray get an inhaler for his
breathing challenges, which have escalated to asthma.
Meet Ray. Age 7 to 12
© 2021 Walden University, LLC 1
Meet Ray. Age 7 to 12 Program Transcript FEMALE SPEAKER: As Ray grows, the family moves around a lot from short-term
rental, to hotel, to campground depending on the season. While this exposes Ray to a
diverse set of experiences and people, it also leads to lack of continuity in schooling and
social relationships as Ray transfers school districts. Ray does well academically,
particularly in math, but does not engage in after school activities preferring to be home
when his mother has a brief break in between her two jobs.
Ray and his mother Mary attend Catholic church services weekly. The family does not
have medical insurance or access to regular medical care aside from Ray’s inhaler
provided by the school. The only affordable and accessible food in their area is
processed and high in fat and sugar. Both of these circumstances affect the physical
health of a family with Ray being overweight and Mary obese. In Ray’s early
adolescence, Mary develops diabetes and cardiovascular disease linked at least part to
her history of obesity and smoking.
Johnson Family Episode 1
Johnson Family Episode 1 Program Transcript
ERIC: Ladies, what’s going on?
ERIC: I’m Eric.
ERIC: Excellent. So I know some good-looking guys looking for some good- looking girls.
SHERRY: You do, huh?
ERIC: We’re throwing a party Saturday night, and invitation only. I want you guys to come. Lots of booze. You like to dance?
TALIA: I love to dance.
ERIC: Me too. You should dance with me. You better come.
TALIA: All right.
ERIC: Both of you.
ERIC: I’ll see you then? All right, see you later.
TALIA: He’s hot.
SHERRY: You think?
TALIA: Oh, yeah. You gonna go?
SHERRY: Well, yeah, if you’re going to go.
TALIA: Yeah, I’m definitely gonna go.
©2013 Laureate Education, Inc. 1
Johnson Family Episode 1
SHERRY: OK, then we’re going.
TALIA: OK, it’s settled.
ERIC: Hey, there. How you feeling?
ERIC: Yes, you are. Here, have some more.
TALIA: I need to lay down. I don’t feel so good.
ERIC: Oh, no. No, no, no. Not here.
TALIA: Take me home.
ERIC: It’s my frat party. I actually– I’ll tell you what. I’ll take you upstairs. You can use my bed, OK?
ERIC: All right. Come on, Talia. I got you.
SHERRY: Talia. Hey, are you OK?
TALIA: I’m fine.
SHERRY: You sure? Do you want to go with him?
ERIC: It’s fine. She likes me. Don’t you?
Johnson Family Episode 1 Additional Content Attribution
MUSIC: Music by Clean Cuts
Original Art and Photography Provided By: Brian Kline and Nico Danks
©2013 Laureate Education, Inc. 2
Meet Ray. Age 13 to 16
© 2021 Walden University, LLC 1
Meet Ray. Age 13 to 16 Program Transcript
NARRATOR: Ray’s mother Mary dies of a heart attack when Ray is 14. Ray is
devastated and retreats further into himself. He begins to experiment with his father’s
alcohol and likes how it makes him forget.
His father George goes from aggressive and argumentative to complacent after Ray’s
mother dies. He doesn’t care what I do, says Ray, who walks to the local park and
drinks and smokes at night. On one occasion, a police officer on patrol escorts him
home and warns that if he is out drinking in public again, he will be fined. Ray does so
again and is fined $500. When he tells the officer he can’t pay, he is instead enrolled in
an alcohol-awareness class and mandated community service.
A year goes by, and due to the loss of income from Mary’s death, he and George have
to move to subsidized housing in a different part of town. At this point, they are living on
Social Security and disability income. Ray signs up for a woodworking class at his new
high school, remembering how his father used to make household items with wood
scraps. The teacher sees promise in him and mentors Ray in woodworking and
cabinetmaking outside of class.
At the same time, Ray becomes interested in dating girls, but he is self-conscious about
his weight. He starts working out at the school gym. Meanwhile, he clashes with George
at home. He sees his father as useless because he hangs around the apartment and
drinks and smokes all day watching TV. Ray has to make dinner for himself, clean, and
so forth. He also has to get a part-time job.
One night, Ray says under his breath, I wish you had died and not Mom.
SOCW 6200: Human Behavior and the Social Environment I
Month XX, 202X
Date of Birth:
This section should include the client’s self-assessment of the problems, reasons, or motivations for seeking treatment, as well as the onset, duration, intensity, and frequency of precipitating stressors or symptoms (in the client’s own words).
State who and/or what entity referred the individual for treatment. Also specify whether information was gathered from previous treatment records, court documents, etc.
Current Living Situation
Describe the client’s current living situation, including any of the following: others living in the home, dependents, employment or disability status, insurance, transportation, and daily living skills.
Birth and Developmental History
This section should include prenatal, birth, and early development history, including information about infancy, childhood, and early adolescence. Describe family of origin—parents, siblings, extended family; geographic, cultural, and spiritual factors of early development; and any history of abuse or trauma.
School and Social Relationships
This section should contain information about social development, particularly in the context of school and peer group experiences. Include current and past friendships, educational history (school attended, performance, education level, and extracurricular activities), and military history (if applicable).
Family Members and Relationships
Identify family members and relationship dynamics, as well as interpersonal/marital history. Include age of involvement in relationships, sexual orientation, length of relationships, relationship patterns or problems, and partner’s age/occupation (if applicable).
Health and Medical Issues
This section includes medical history and current physical health, mental status, history of psychiatric illness and previous treatment, and substance use history.
Medical History and Physical Health
State any history of traumatic injuries, chronic health problems, current illnesses, current health status, allergies, medications and vitamins/supplements, health habits (appetite, sleep, exercise, nicotine, alcohol, illicit drugs), sexual functioning, and risk behaviors.
Describe relevant observations about attitude, affect, mood, and appearance; memory, cognition, thought process, and speech; judgment, homicidal/suicidal ideation, and hallucinations/delusions.
History of Psychiatric Illness and Previous Treatment
Include previous mental health diagnoses, inpatient or outpatient treatment, and history of self-injury, suicide attempt, or suicidal ideation. Include history of aggression, violence, or homicidal ideation.
Substance Use History
State the type of substance use, onset, duration, pattern of use, and involvement in treatment.
Spiritual and Cultural Development
Describe the client’s spiritual beliefs and activities, including past and current involvement in organized religion and faith-based services and programs. Record cultural factors, such as cultural background, beliefs, and practices, that are relevant to assessment and treatment.
Social, Community, and Recreational Activities
Record leisure activities, involvement in the community, and available social supports.
Client Strengths, Capacities, and Resources
List the client’s personal strengths and abilities, as well as available family and social resources.
Summary and Analysis
Summarize the biopsychosocial assessment. Provide an analysis of the overall challenges experienced by the client and how the social environment has contributed to those challenges. Describe how this analysis of the social environment would be beneficial to treatment and goal-setting. Please use the Learning Resources and additional research to support your analysis.
Describe two goals that you can work on with this client based on the assessment. Explain why these goals are appropriate and relevant to the case in addressing the presenting issue and challenges. Please use the Learning Resources and additional research to support your analysis.
(Include full references here for any sources that you have cited within the Summary and Analysis and Goals sections of the paper. Note that the following references are intended as examples only.)
American Counseling Association. (n.d.). About us. https://www.counseling.org/about-us/about-aca
Anderson, M. (2018). Getting consistent with consequences. Educational Leadership, 76(1), 26-33.
Bach, D., & Blake, D. J. (2016). Frame or get framed: The critical role of issue framing in nonmarket management. California Management Review, 58(3), 66-87. https://doi.org/10.1525/cmr.2016.58.3.66
Burgess, R. (2019). Rethinking global health: Frameworks of Power. Routledge.
Herbst-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24(2), 225–229. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-6220.127.116.11
Johnson, P. (2003). Art: A new history. HarperCollins. https://doi.org/10.1037.0000136-000
Lindley, L. C., & Slayter, E. M. (2018). Prior trauma exposure and serious illness at end of life: A national study of children in the U.S. foster care system from 2005 to 2015. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 56(3), 309–317. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2018.06.001
Osman, M. A. (2016, December 15). 5 do’s and don’ts for staying motivated. Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/adult-health/in-depth/5-dos-and-donts-for-staying-motivated/art-20270835
Sue, D. W., & Sue, D. (2016). Counseling the culturally diverse: Theory and practice (7th ed.). Wiley.
Walden University Library. (n.d.). Anatomy of a research article [Video]. https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/library/instructionalmedia/tutorials#s-lg-box-7955524
Walden University Writing Center. (n.d.). Writing literature reviews in your graduate coursework [Webinar]. https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/webinars/graduate#s-lg-box-18447417
World Health Organization. (2018, March). Questions and answers on immunization and vaccine safety. https://www.who.int/features/qa/84/en/
Bystander Intervention to Prevent Sexual Violence: The Overlooked Role of Bystander Alcohol Intoxication
Ruschelle M. Leone Georgia State University
Michelle Haikalis University of Nebraska—Lincoln
Dominic J. Parrott Georgia State University
David DiLillo University of Nebraska—Lincoln
Objectives: Bystander training is a promising form of sexual violence (SV) prevention that has proliferated in recent years. Though alcohol commonly accompanies SV, there has been little consider- ation of the potential impact of bystander alcohol intoxication on SV prevention. The aims of this commentary are to provide an integrative framework for understanding the proximal effect of alcohol on SV intervention, provide recommendations to spark novel research, and guide the application of research to bystander programming efforts. Method: This commentary begins with a review of existing bystander training programs and the need to target alcohol use and misuse in these programming efforts. Next, pertinent alcohol and bystander theories and research are drawn to develop a framework for the proximal effect of alcohol on SV intervention. Results: The well-established decision-making model of bystander behavior (Latané & Darley, 1970) and alcohol myopia theory (Steele & Josephs, 1990) are used to identify potential barriers to SV intervention that may be created or exacerbated by alcohol use. Additionally, the ways in which alcohol may facilitate intervention are discussed. Conclusions: Specific recommendations are made for elucidating the relationship between alcohol and bystander behavior and testing the impact of alcohol at each level of the presented framework. Methodological and analytic concerns are discussed, including the need for more multimethod studies. Recommendations to guide the application of the present framework to SV prevention programming efforts are provided, and consider how the proximal effects of alcohol impact intervention.
Keywords: alcohol myopia, bystander effect, prevention, sexual aggression, sexual assault
Through the myopia it causes, alcohol may tie us to a roller-coaster ride of immediate impulses arising from whatever cues are salient.
—(Steele & Josephs, 1990, p. 923)
. . . situational factors, specifically factors involving the immediate social environment, may be of greater importance in determining an individual’s reaction to an emergency than such broad motivational concepts as “apathy”. . . .
—(Latané & Darley, 1970, p. 127)
Bystander training is a promising form of sexual violence (SV) prevention that has gained widespread favor in recent years
(DeGue et al., 2014). These programs train witnesses to intervene in risky sexual situations, which often involve alcohol (Abbey, 2002; Testa, 2002). Though bystanders, if also intoxicated in these situations, are undoubtedly susceptible to alcohol’s cognitive and attentional influences, there is little empirical data to inform whether intoxication on the part of bystanders interferes with their ability to respond effectively to sexual risk situations. As such, the principal aims of this article are to (a) propose an integrative framework for the proximal effect of alcohol intoxication on by- stander intervention when witnessing SV behavior (hereafter referred to as SV intervention), (b) provide recommendations to stimulate new lines of research, and (c) guide the application of research to bystander programming efforts. This article begins by reviewing bystander training programs and discussing the need to target alcohol use and misuse in these programming efforts. We then provide a framework to understand how the proximal effects of alcohol may influence SV intervention by integrating pertinent alcohol and bystander theories. This framework is the basis for specific recommendations for future research and is used to guide potential applications of findings to prevention programming efforts.
Review of Bystander Training Programming
Bystander training programs have proliferated on college cam- puses in recent years as a key approach to SV prevention. In
This article was published Online First October 19, 2017. Ruschelle M. Leone, Department of Psychology, Georgia State University;
Michelle Haikalis, Department of Psychology, University of Nebraska—Lin- coln; Dominic J. Parrott, Department of Psychology, Georgia State University; David DiLillo, Department of Psychology, University of Nebraska—Lincoln.
Ruschelle M. Leone and Michelle Haikalis contributed equally to this work and share first authorship. Preparation of this article was supported in part by National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Grants F31AA024692 awarded to Michelle Haikalis and F31AA024369 awarded to Ruschelle M. Leone.
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Ruschelle M. Leone, Department of Psychology, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 5010, Atlanta, GA 30302-5010. E-mail: [email protected]
Psychology of Violence © 2017 American Psychological Association 2018, Vol. 8, No. 5, 639 – 647 2152-0828/18/$12.00 http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/vio0000155
contrast to traditional prevention approaches that seek to educate about SV and shift rape-supportive attitudes (Banyard, Plante, & Moynihan, 2004; DeGue et al., 2014; Söchting, Fairbrother, & Koch, 2004), these programs focus on activating individuals to intervene in a range of SV behaviors (Bennett, Banyard, & Garnhart, 2014). Bystander programs serve two main functions: (a) to prevent specific instances of SV from occurring by encour- aging bystanders to engage in intervention when witnessing risky sexual scenarios and (b) to lead a cultural shift by establishing healthy social norms and dispelling rape-supportive attitudes that contribute to SV (Fabiano, Perkins, Berkowitz, Linkenbach, & Stark, 2003). By targeting individual-, peer-, and community-level risk factors for SV, bystander programs answer the numerous calls made for a multilevel, ecological approach to strengthen preven- tion efforts (Banyard, 2011; DeGue et al., 2014). Evaluations indicate that bystander training can attenuate attitudinal barriers to action (e.g., rape-myth acceptance) and increase bystanders’ desire to intervene in risky sexual situations (e.g., bystander intentions; for review, see Katz & Moore, 2013). Though reducing rape- supportive attitudes is desirable, examination of attitudinal out- comes in isolation stops short of the main outcomes of interest, namely, fostering bystander intervention behaviors and reducing the occurrence of SV. A focus on attitudes alone is concerning, given a recent review of SV training programs that target attitu- dinal or knowledge outcomes are ineffective in producing behavior change (DeGue et al., 2014). Moreover, only a few studies have (a) examined whether bystander training leads to increases in self- reported prosocial bystander behavior, and (b) demonstrated pos- itive increases in prosocial bystander behavior following training (Coker et al., 2015; Moynihan et al., 2015).
In-person training is the most common method of enlisting bystanders to intervene and is typically conducted through presen- tations or small group workshops, with audiences most often consisting of U.S. college students. Online trainings have also been developed, which ease the burden of dissemination and have the potential to reach more individuals, more often (Jouriles et al., 2016; Salazar, Vivolo-Kantor, Hardin, & Berkowitz, 2014). Though details vary, trainings share many common components, including SV awareness education, specific techniques to identify sexual risk markers, education about bystanders’ responsibility when they witness risk, and discussion about or practice engaging in strategies to intervene in risky situations (for a review, see Storer, Casey, & Herrenkohl, 2016). Trainings often include some consideration of the well-established finding that alcohol is a contributing factor of SV (Abbey et al., 2002) and focus on encouraging students to recognize risk when in alcohol-related contexts. This focus is particularly important, given that perpetra- tor or victim alcohol intoxication is a factor in over half of sexual assaults (Abbey, 2002; Testa, 2002) and that bystanders report perceiving more barriers to intervention when a potential victim is intoxicated (Pugh, Ningard, Ven, & Butler, 2016).
Though training bystanders to attend to alcohol-related risk is helpful, programming efforts to date have not adequately ad- dressed how alcohol use could influence bystanders themselves. Thus, key questions remain. Are intoxicated individuals less likely to recognize SV risk, less able to engage in bystander behavior, or less effective at intervening? Relatedly, what are the mechanisms by which alcohol might influence bystander witnessing or behav- ior? Surprisingly, no study has directly examined the effects of
alcohol use on bystander behavior in the moment, and only three studies have examined general links between bystander alcohol use and bystander behavior. These latter findings demonstrate that men who drink more heavily are less willing to intervene in SV than men who do not drink heavily (Orchowski, Berkowitz, Bog- gis, & Oesterle, 2016); heavy alcohol use is associated with a lower likelihood of SV intervention among men but not women (Fleming & Wiersma-Mosley, 2015), and bystanders fail to inter- vene in the vast majority of bystander opportunities in bar settings (Graham et al., 2014). Though these findings suggest possible associations between alcohol use and bystander behaviors, the field lacks evidence to inform our understanding of the impact of acute intoxication on bystander behavior and the putative mecha- nisms for this effect.
An Integrative Framework for the Proximal Effect of Alcohol on SV Intervention
The most well-established model of bystander behavior (Ben- nett et al., 2014; Burn, 2009), the decision-making model, posits that bystanders must make a series of decisions to intervene: They must (a) notice the event, (b) identify the situation as intervention appropriate, (c) take responsibility to intervene, (d) decide how to help, and (e) take action (Latané & Darley, 1970). Progressing through these decision-making steps is important for bystanders to engage in prosocial behavior; however, barriers at each step may hinder intervention. As the number of perceived barriers increases, the likelihood that a bystander will engage in SV intervention decreases (Burn, 2009). Moreover, bystanders’ decision-making does not necessarily follow a linear path, wherein each step is subsequently achieved (Banyard, 2011). Depending on the devel- opment of the witnessed situation, bystanders may take in new information and regress to the previous steps. Further, although decision-making is an internal process, bystanders are influenced by contextual variables and previous experiences with witnessing and intervening in SV, which impact current behavior (Banyard, 2011). The present article will use the structure of the internal decision-making process outlined by Latané and Darley (1970), while considering how context and previous experiences impact this process at each step. We argue that alcohol intoxication inhibits bystander behavior because it creates barriers at multiple steps of the decision-making model. Before reviewing data in support of this view, it is important first to establish how acute alcohol intoxication is theorized to influence decision-making and behavior.
Alcohol Myopia Theory
Alcohol myopia theory (AMT; Steele & Josephs, 1990) is one of the most well-accepted explanations of the effects of alcohol intoxication on behavior. AMT purports that the pharmacological properties of alcohol impair attentional capacity and processes. Specifically, this alcohol-related impairment has a narrowing ef- fect on attention, also known as “alcohol myopia,” which restricts the range of internal and external cues individuals perceive and process. By impairing attentional capacity, intoxication causes individuals to allocate or shift their limited attentional focus to the more salient, immediate, and easier to process cues in the envi- ronment. As a consequence, the full meaning of less salient cues is
640 LEONE, HAIKALIS, PARROTT, AND DILILLO
never fully processed, or possibly even perceived. Importantly, the content of the cues that are processed is posited to influence subsequent behavior.
To help illustrate AMT, attention may be thought of as a spotlight. When individuals are sober, the spotlight is wide and focuses on both salient and less salient cues. However, when an individual is intoxicated, the spotlight is narrow and focuses only on the most immediate and salient cues in the environment, to the exclusion of less salient cues. For example, in SV situations, alcohol would inhibit intervention in cases in whi
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