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I need to turn my attached outline into a powerpoint presentation. I am also attaching a sample powerpont to use only for guida


I need to turn my attached outline into a powerpoint presentation. I am also attaching a sample powerpont to use only for guida

I need to turn my attached outline into a powerpoint presentation.

I am also attaching a sample powerpont to use only for guidance

SCIENCE LAB WEEK 5 2

Mellissa Saunders

Week 5

A. Introduction

Air Pollution

In doing research I found that the World Health Organization (WHO) states that, air pollution is the main environmental risk around the world and at it can cause an estimate of $3.7 million dollars per year in damages (Nunez, 2015). The burning of fuels from factories and the burning or petroleum, the burning of crops from farmers, even you everyday cleaning supplies can cause air pollution. Air pollution causes respiratory conditions and acid rains (Dhaniya, 2019). 

2. Deforestation 

Deforestation is known as the removal of trees permanently in order to allow space for roads, houses, or buildings. Deforestation can also be done by making more room for agriculture by clearing land. The negative side of deforestation is that you destroy the home for animals and plants. Clearing the land means cutting down trees and cutting down trees means means that more oxygen is allowed to circulate in the atmosphere, which threatens the depletion of the ozone layer (Derouin, 2019; Nunez, 2015).

B. Solutions

1. Solution 1

Using fuels like diesel or using electric cars that doesn’t require the use of fuel at all is a good way prevent air pollution. Biodiesel has been found to have fewer emissions due to the complete combustion of the fuel, which means oxygen can get through (“Biodiesel benefits and considerations,” n.d.). Using an electric car requires no fossil fuels which mean less air pollution from those particular chemicals.

2. Solution 2

Planting trees can help avoid deforestation. If everyone does there part it will help for plants and animals to keep their homes. Other ways would be using electric stoves rather than gas stoves or even use wood to cook on outside stoves burning wood is not harmful to the air.

C. Costs and Benefits

1. Costs of Solution 1

Using other sources to fossil diesel can be a tad bit more expensive then gas. Because those fuels would require your vehicle to get serviced more often than normal. Electric vehicles are already expensive so it would just be a matter of being able to afford to purchase a electric car for use

2. Benefits of Solution 1

Alternative fuels reduces emissions. The use of Biodiesels means that the atmostpher can obsorbe the carbon dioxide as necessary. Because electric cars run by electricity is does not affect the atmosphere at all.

3. Costs of Solution 2

People will would have to pay for seeds in order to plant the trees. Trying to spread the important and awareness around the community will cost because it will require people to have to pay for things like the use of media which requires the internet. Using an electric cooker as opposed to gas or fuel to cook can be costly to purchase if you do not already own one. Replacing papers with computer can be extremely expensive for those who do not own a computer.

4. Benefits of Solution 2

The Planting of trees can help absorb carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The forests where the plants and animals live helps preserve wildlife. sources other than fuel like gas have reduced emissions as opposed to burning wood and coals. Computers do not cause air pollution at all they are way more efficient that the use of paper.

Recommendations

Factories and companies should how much smoke they are releasing into the air. The biggest thing is to create awareness to air pollution and everything that it does to the air.

References

Nunez, C. (March 18, 2015). 7 threats facing our planet. Global Citizen. https://www.globalcitizen.org/en/content/7-threats-facing-our-planet/

Derouin, S. (November 6, 2019). Deforestation: Facts, causes, & effects. LiveScience. https://www.livescience.com/27692-deforestation.html

Dhaniya, A. (August 13, 2019). Causes, effects, and solutions for the woes of air pollution on human life. MyStory. https://yourstory.com/mystory/causes-effects-and-solutions-for-the-woes-of-air-p

SCIENCE LAB WEEK 5

1

Mell

issa Sa

unders

W

eek 5

SCIENCE LAB WEEK 5 1

Mellissa Saunders

Week 5

,

Name: Class:

Professor:

September 18, 2018

Air Pollution in Bakersfield

Bakersfield, California

U.S city with the worst air pollution (Berg, 2017).

Purpose

To analyze the costs and benefits of solutions to the air pollution problem in Bakersfield.

Introduction

Air pollution

Contamination of the atmosphere

With excessive toxic particles, gases or biological compounds.

Causes of air pollution in Bakersfield

Emissions from:

Agriculture

Rail freight

Industry

Road traffic (Berg, 2017).

The Environmental Problem

Factors that exacerbate air pollution in Bakersfield

Topography

Valley

Climatic conditions

Warm weather

(Cisneros et al., 2017).

Health risks associated with air pollution

Respiratory diseases

Lung cancer

Cardiovascular illness

(Gonzales, Gulden, Strong, & Hoyle, 2016)

New state laws and standards

To make smog control stricter

To regulate emissions

From agriculture, vehicles, and factories.

To improve fuel efficiency

To reduce agricultural burn-offs

(Zhang, 2017).

Solution 1

Clean air projects

Education on air pollution

Development of innovative emission control technologies

Biogas projects

Air filtration systems

In community centers and learning institutions

(Chauhan et al., 2018).

Solution 2

Federal fines

Failure to align California’s smog standards with federal requirements.

Implementing smog reduction laws that are too strict for businesses

Costly air quality plans

(Zhang, 2017)

Costs of Solution 1

Administration costs

Record keeping

Monitoring

Air quality practices

Reporting

To the EPA

(Gonzales et al., 2016).

Penalty fees

Failure to meet stringent state pollution prevention laws

Unwillingness to secure air quality permits

Lack of the required pollution controls and measures

(Zhang, 2017).

Costs of Solution 1

Cost of pollution control equipment

Installation

Green technologies

Testing

Maintenance

Personnel

(Gonzales et al., 2016).

Compliance costs

Clean air projects may fail

To meet federal and state compliance requirements.

Loss of revenue

Due to non-compliance of clean air projects with pollution control standards

(Chauhan et al., 2018).

Costs of Solution 2

Oversight costs

Compensation of oversight officers

Legal expenses may be incurred

If problems occur during the implementation of the clean air projects

(Cisneros et al., 2017).

Tax Burden

The public may be forced to pay additional taxes

To cater for the costs of implementing clean air projects in Bakersfield.

Expenditure on pollution prevention programs will increase.

At state and federal levels

(Cisneros et al., 2017)

Costs of Solution 2

Loss of jobs

Emission control projects are likely to cause loss of jobs

In the agricultural and manufacturing sectors.

Dependence on new technology

Decreases demand for manual labor.

(Chauhan et al., 2018).

Less expenditure on fuel

Use of biofuel

Fuel efficiency standards will contribute to a decrease in oil budgets

In the motor vehicle and manufacturing sectors (Zhang, 2017).

Benefits of Solution 1

Improved competitiveness of local industries

Cost-efficiency due to effective equipment and production tools

More profits

The growth of industries as a result of technology support

(Gonzales et al., 2016).

Health-related benefits

Mitigation of illnesses

Improved public health

Reduction in healthcare costs

Decrease in mortality

(Noth et al., 2016).

Benefits of Solution 1

Improved productivity

Healthy workers

Use of innovative solutions

Employee welfare

Motivating working environment

(Gonzales et al., 2016).

Improved public awareness of air pollution

Education programs

Will enable the residents of Bakersfield to appreciate the importance of minimizing air pollution (Cisneros et al., 2017).

Benefits of Solution 2

A decrease in regulatory requirements

Clean air projects

Will eliminate the need for monitoring, reporting, and issuance of permits (Gonzales et al., 2016).

Improved air quality and health.

Clean air projects will contribute to better quality of air in Bakersfield.

City residents will experience better health outcomes

(Cisneros et al., 2017).

Benefits of Solution 2

Better community relations

The projects will improve collaboration between stakeholders

Such as the local government, the public, institutions, and production firms

In the fight against air pollution

(Zhang, 2017).

New laws and standards are recommended

For addressing the air pollution problem in Bakersfield.

Unlike clean air projects

Legislative measures will not result in an increase in public taxes.

Therefore, solution 1 is cost effective

New laws will also provide for the use of biofuels

Which are less costly

The benefits of clean air projects

Such as improved air quality and public health

Will also be realized through new laws and standards.

New laws are necessary

Because topographic and climatic conditions predispose Bakersfield to more air pollution

Than other cities in the U.S.

The success of clean air projects will not be guaranteed.

The air pollution problem may persist

Agricultural, motor vehicle, and manufacturing sectors in Bakersfield will have no choice but to adhere to new laws and standards

On air pollution control.

And the use of emission control technologies

Recommended Solution

Berg, N. (2017, February). Breathless in Bakersfield: Is the worst air pollution in the U.S about to get worse?. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2017/feb/14/bakersfield-california-bad-air-pollution-us

Chauhan, A., de Azevedo, S. C., & Singh, R. P. (2018). Pronounced changes in air quality, atmospheric and meteorological parameters, and strong mixing of smoke associated with a dust event over Bakersfield, California. Environmental Earth Sciences, 77(4), 115.

Cisneros, R., Brown, P., Cameron, L., Gaab, E., Gonzalez, M., Ramondt, S., … & Schweizer, D. (2017). Understanding public views about air quality and air pollution sources in the San Joaquin Valley, California. Journal of Environmental and Public Health, 2017.

Gonzales, D., Gulden, T. R., Strong, A., & Hoyle, W. (2016). Cost-benefit Analysis of Proposed California Oil and Gas Refinery Regulations. Rand Corporation.

Noth, E. M., Lurmann, F., Northcross, A., Perrino, C., Vaughn, D., & Hammond, S. K. (2016). Spatial and temporal distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and elemental carbon in Bakersfield, California. Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health, 9(8), 899-908.

Zhang, W. (2017). Costs of a Practice-based Air Quality Regulation: Dairy Farms in the San Joaquin Valley. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 100(3), 762-785.

References

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