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In this assignment, you consider how leaders can


In this assignment, you consider how leaders can

In this assignment, you consider how leaders can engage in a strategic planning process with stakeholders to develop a plan to guide the organization’s evolution and development for the long-term. Since strategic planning should engage persons who will be affected by an organization’s decisions (e.g., staff, administration, board members, members of the community), it is important to include key stakeholders in the planning process so that it reflects their perspectives and interests.

For this Assignment, think about how you would begin the strategic planning process for a human services organization. Consider the human services organizations for which you have worked either in your fieldwork or as an employee. (I’VE INTERNED AT AN LGBTQ+ COMMUNITY CENTER AND WORKED AT AN HOSPITAL) Based on what you know about a particular organization, what steps might you take to establish a plan for the organization’s long-term development?

Assignment (2–4 pages in APA format): Describe the first three steps you would take to begin the strategic planning process for a human services organization. Be sure to include the key stakeholders—who should be involved in each step and why they need to be included in the process. In addition, include steps you would take to establish stakeholder support and confidence.

Note: Although you will base your strategic plan on what you know about an actual organization, do not include any identifying information about the organization or its stakeholders.

SOCW6070 WK5 Required Readings

Northouse, P. G. (2021). Introduction to leadership: Concepts and practice (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Sage.

Chapter 7, “Creating a Vision” (pp. 161-208)

Chapter 8, “Establishing a Constructive Climate” (pp. 182-208)

Chapter 10, “Listening to Out-Group Members” (pp. 252-275)

Plummer, S.-B., Makris, S., & Brocksen, S. M. (Eds.). (2014b). Social work case studies: Concentration year. Baltimore, MD: Laureate International Universities Publishing [Vital Source e-reader]. “Social Work Supervision, Leadership, and Administration: The Southeast Planning Group” (pp. 85–86)

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Introduction to Leadership Fourth Edition

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Introduction to Leadership Concepts and Practice

Fourth Edition

Peter G. Northouse Western Michigan University

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FOR INFORMATION:

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All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

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Brief Contents 1. Preface 2. About the Author 3. 1. Understanding Leadership 4. 2. Recognizing Your Traits 5. 3. Engaging Strengths 6. 4. Understanding Philosophy and Styles 7. 5. Attending to Tasks and Relationships 8. 6. Developing Leadership Skills 9. 7. Creating a Vision

10. 8. Establishing a Constructive Climate 11. 9. Embracing Diversity and Inclusion 12. 10. Listening to Out-Group Members 13. 11. Managing Conflict 14. 12. Addressing Ethics in Leadership 15. 13. Overcoming Obstacles 16. Glossary 17. Index

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Detailed Contents Preface About the Author 1. Understanding Leadership

Introduction Leadership Explained

“Leadership Is a Trait” “Leadership Is an Ability” “Leadership Is a Skill” “Leadership Is a Behavior” “Leadership Is a Relationship” “Leadership Is an Influence Process”

Global Leadership Attributes The Dark Side of Leadership Leadership Snapshot: Indra Nooyi Summary Application

1.1 Case Study 1.2 Conceptualizing Leadership Questionnaire 1.3 Observational Exercise 1.4 Reflection and Action Worksheet

References 2. Recognizing Your Traits

Introduction Leadership Traits Explained

Intelligence Confidence Charisma Determination Sociability Integrity

Leadership Snapshot: Nelson Mandela Leadership Traits in Practice

George Washington (1732–1799) Winston Churchill (1874–1965) Mother Teresa (1910–1997) Bill Gates (1955–)

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Oprah Winfrey (1954–) Summary Application

2.1 Case Study 2.2 Leadership Traits Questionnaire 2.3 Observational Exercise 2.4 Reflection and Action Worksheet

References 3. Engaging Strengths

Introduction Strengths-Based Leadership Explained

Historical Background Identifying and Measuring Strengths

Strengths-Based Leadership in Practice Discovering Your Strengths Developing Your Strengths Addressing Your Weaknesses

Leadership Snapshot: Steve Jobs Recognizing and Engaging the Strengths of Others Fostering a Positive Strengths-Based Environment

Summary Application

3.1 Case Study 3.2 Leadership Strengths Questionnaire 3.3 Observational Exercise 3.4 Reflection and Action Worksheet

References 4. Understanding Philosophy and Styles

Introduction Leadership Philosophy Explained

Theory X Theory Y

Leadership Styles Explained Authoritarian Leadership Style Democratic Leadership Style Laissez-Faire Leadership Style

Leadership Snapshot: Victoria Ransom Leadership Styles in Practice Summary Application

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4.1 Case Study 4.2 Leadership Styles Questionnaire 4.3 Observational Exercise 4.4 Reflection and Action Worksheet

References 5. Attending to Tasks and Relationships

Introduction Task and Relationship Styles Explained

Task Style Relationship Style

Leadership Snapshot: Mick Wilz Task and Relationship Styles in Practice

Task Leadership Relationship Leadership

Summary Application

5.1 Case Study 5.2 Task and Relationship Questionnaire 5.3 Observational Exercise 5.4 Reflection and Action Worksheet

References 6. Developing Leadership Skills

Introduction Administrative Skills Explained

Administrative Skills in Practice Interpersonal Skills Explained

Interpersonal Skills in Practice Leadership Snapshot: Coquese Washington Conceptual Skills Explained

Conceptual Skills in Practice Summary Application

6.1 Case Study 6.2 Leadership Skills Questionnaire 6.3 Observational Exercise 6.4 Reflection and Action Worksheet

References 7. Creating a Vision

Introduction Vision Explained

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A Picture A Change Values

Leadership Snapshot: Rosalie Giffoniello A Map A Challenge

Vision in Practice Articulating a Vision Implementing a Vision

Summary Application

7.1 Case Study 7.2 Leadership Vision Questionnaire 7.3 Observational Exercise 7.4 Reflection and Action Worksheet

References 8. Establishing a Constructive Climate

Introduction Constructive Climate Explained Climate in Practice

Providing Structure Clarifying Norms Building Cohesiveness Promoting Standards of Excellence

Leadership Snapshot: Meg Whitman Summary Application

8.1 Case Study 8.2 Organizational Climate Questionnaire 8.3 Observational Exercise 8.4 Reflection and Action Worksheet

References 9. Embracing Diversity and Inclusion

Introduction Diversity and Inclusion Explained

Definitions Brief Historical Perspective

Inclusion Framework Leadership Snapshot: Ursula Burns Diversity and Inclusion in Practice

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Model of Inclusive Practices Leader Practices That Advance Diversity and Inclusion Barriers to Embracing Diversity and Inclusion

Summary Application

9.1 Case Study 9.2 Cultural Diversity Awareness Questionnaire 9.3 Observational Exercise 9.4 Reflection and Action Worksheet

References 10. Listening to Out-Group Members

Introduction Out-Group Members Explained

How Out-Groups Form The Impact of Out-Group Members

Out-Group Members in Practice Strategy 1: Listen to Out-Group Members Strategy 2: Show Empathy to Out-Group Members Strategy 3: Recognize the Unique Contributions of Out- Group Members Strategy 4: Help Out-Group Members Feel Included Strategy 5: Create a Special Relationship With Out-Group Members Strategy 6: Give Out-Group Members a Voice and Empower Them to Act

Leadership Snapshot: Abraham Lincoln Summary Application

10.1 Case Study 10.2 Building Community Questionnaire 10.3 Observational Exercise 10.4 Reflection and Action Worksheet

References 11. Managing Conflict

Introduction Conflict Explained

Communication and Conflict Conflict on the Content Level

Leadership Snapshot: Humaira Bachal Conflict on the Relational Level

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Managing Conflict in Practice Fisher and Ury Approach to Conflict Communication Strategies for Conflict Resolution Kilmann and Thomas Styles of Approaching Conflict

Summary Application

11.1 Case Study 11.2 Conflict Style Questionnaire 11.3 Observational Exercise 11.4 Reflection and Action Worksheet

References 12. Addressing Ethics in Leadership

Introduction Leadership Ethics Explained Leadership Ethics in Practice

1. The Character of the Leader 2. The Actions of the Leader

Leadership Snapshot: Warren Buffett and Bill and Melinda Gates

3. The Goals of the Leader 4. The Honesty of the Leader 5. The Power of the Leader 6. The Values of the Leader

Culture and Leadership Ethics Summary Application

12.1 Case Study 12.2 Sample Items From the Ethical Leadership Style Questionnaire 12.3 Observational Exercise 12.4 Reflection and Action Worksheet

References 13. Overcoming Obstacles

Introduction Obstacles Explained Overcoming Obstacles in Practice

Obstacle 1: Unclear Goals Obstacle 2: Unclear Directions Obstacle 3: Low Motivation

Leadership Snapshot: Bill Courtney

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Obstacle 4: Complex Tasks Obstacle 5: Simple Tasks Obstacle 6: Low Involvement Obstacle 7: Lack of a Challenge

Summary Application

13.1 Case Study 13.2 Path–Goal Styles Questionnaire 13.3 Observational Exercise 13.4 Reflection and Action Worksheet

References Glossary Index

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Preface

Leadership is a salient topic today. Given the volatility of global events and our national political climate, it is even more important now than it was when the third edition of this book was published. The public remains fascinated by who leaders are and what leaders do. People want to know what accounts for good leadership and how to become good leaders. Despite this strong interest in leadership, there are very few books that clearly describe the complexities of practicing leadership. I have written Introduction to Leadership: Concepts and Practice to fill this void.

Each chapter describes a fundamental principle of leadership and how it relates in practice to becoming an effective leader. These fundamentals are illustrated through examples, profiles of effective leaders, and case studies. The text comprises 13 chapters: Chapter 1, “Understanding Leadership,” analyzes how different definitions of leadership have an impact on the practice of leadership. Chapter 2, “Recognizing Your Traits,” examines leadership traits found to be important in social science research and explores the leadership traits of a select group of historical and contemporary leaders. Chapter 3, “Engaging Strengths,” discusses the emerging field of strengths-based leadership, looking at how several assessment tools can help one to recognize his or her own strengths and those of others and then put those strengths to work as an effective leader. Chapter 4, “Understanding Philosophy and Styles,” explores how a person’s view of people, work, and human nature forms a personal philosophy of leadership and how this relates to three commonly observed styles of leadership: authoritarian, democratic, and laissez-faire. Chapter 5, “Attending to Tasks and Relationships,” describes how leaders can integrate and optimize task and relationship behaviors in their leadership role. Chapter 6, “Developing Leadership Skills,” considers three types of leadership skills: administrative, interpersonal, and conceptual. Chapter 7, “Creating a Vision,” explores the characteristics of a vision and how a vision is expressed and implemented. Chapter 8, “Establishing a Constructive Climate,” focuses on how important it is for leaders who are running groups or organizations to provide structure, clarify norms, build cohesiveness, and promote standards of excellence. Chapter 9, “Embracing Diversity and Inclusion,” discusses the importance of inclusive leadership and the barriers that can be encountered when trying

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to embrace diversity and inclusion. Chapter 10, “Listening to Out- Group Members,” explores the nature of out-groups, their impact, and ways leaders should respond to out-group members. Chapter 11, “Managing Conflict,” addresses the question of how we can manage conflict and produce positive change. Chapter 12, “Addressing Ethics in Leadership,” explores six factors that are related directly to ethical leadership: character, actions, goals, honesty, power, and values. Finally, Chapter 13, “Overcoming Obstacles,” addresses seven obstacles that subordinates may face and how a leader can help to overcome these.

New to This Edition This edition retains the chapters of the previous edition but has been expanded and enhanced in several ways:

First and foremost, it includes a new chapter on diversity and inclusion that examines the nature of diversity and inclusion, provides a model of inclusive behavior, describes communication practices to improve inclusion, and identifies barriers to effective inclusive leadership. Second, this edition premieres the Ethical Leadership Style Questionnaire, a self-assessment instrument that allows readers to learn what their ethical leadership behaviors tend to be. The questionnaire in this book is an abridged edition of a longer, more comprehensive assessment available to readers online. Third, several chapters include a look at the dark side of leadership in terms of the approaches explored in the book. Fourth, new case studies, examples, and research are integrated throughout the book. Fifth, this edition includes new “Ask the Author” videos that show Peter Northouse answering student questions.

Special Features Introduction to Leadership: Concepts and Practice is designed to help the reader understand how to become a better leader. While the book is grounded in leadership theory, it describes the basics of leadership in an understandable and user-friendly way. Each chapter focuses on a fundamental aspect of leadership, discusses how it can be applied in real

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leadership situations, and provides a relevant profile of a leader.

Perhaps the most notable features of this book are the four applied activities included in every chapter, which allow the reader to explore leadership concepts and real-world applications:

Case studies illustrate the leadership concepts discussed in the chapter. At the end of each case, thought-provoking questions help the reader analyze the case using ideas presented in the chapter. Self-assessment questionnaires help the reader determine his or her own leadership style and preferences. Students may want to complete this questionnaire before reading the chapter’s content. By completing the questionnaire first, the reader will be more aware of how the chapter’s content specifically applies to his or her leadership tendencies. Observational exercises guide the reader in examining behaviors of leaders from his or her life experiences. Reflection and action worksheets stimulate the reader to reflect on his or her leadership style and identify actions to take to become more effective.

Audience A practice-oriented book, Introduction to Leadership: Concepts and Practice is written in a user-friendly style appropriate for introductory leadership courses across disciplines. Specifically, it is well suited for programs in leadership studies and leadership courses in schools of agriculture, allied health, business, management, communication, education, engineering, military science, public administration, nursing, political science, social work, and religion. In addition, this book is appropriate for programs in continuing education, corporate training, executive development, in-service training, and government training. It is also useful for student extracurricular activities.

Digital Resources SAGE coursepacks allow instructors to import high-quality online resources directly into Blackboard, Canvas, Moodle, or Brightspace by Desire2Learn (D2L) in an intuitive, simple format. Instructors who do not

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use an LMS platform can still access many of the online resources by visiting edge.sagepub.com/northouseintro4e.

SAGE coursepacks include, for each chapter:

A diverse range of test items with pretests, posttests, and test banks built on Bloom’s Taxonomy and AACSB standards, available with ExamView test generation Assignable SAGE Premium Video (available via the interactive eBook version, linked through SAGE coursepacks) that includes insights from Peter G. Northouse and other leadership experts, with corresponding multimedia assessment options that automatically feed to a gradebook A comprehensive Media Guide for the video resources Discussion questions to help launch classroom interaction SAGE journal articles to show how scholarship relates to chapter concepts Editable, chapter-specific PowerPoint® slides that offer flexibility when creating multimedia lectures Sample course syllabi with suggested models for structuring a leadership course Lecture notes that summarize key concepts for each chapter Ideas for class activities that can be used in class to reinforce active learning Web exercises that direct students to useful websites to complete creative activities and reinforce learning Suggested films to facilitate showing examples of leadership in action Case notes that include case summaries, analyses, and sample answers to case questions The Reflection and Action Worksheets and Observational Exercises from the text in downloadable Word document format for more flexibility in using these resources Tables and figures from the textbook

SAGE edge for students at edge.sagepub.com/northouseintro4e enhances learning in an easy-to-use environment that offers, for each chapter, learning objectives, action plans to track progress, mobile-friendly flashcards and practice quizzes, SAGE Premium Video featuring author Peter G. Northouse, additional multimedia resources, and selected SAGE

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journal articles to strengthen learning.

Interactive eBook An interactive eBook version of the text is available for students to provide a contemporary, multimedia-integrated presentation for learning. In addition to a fully electronic textbook, students can link directly to “Ask the Author” video, audio, additional enrichment readings from SAGE journals titles, and other relevant resources, bringing the subject matter to life in a way a traditional print text cannot.

The interactive eBook features exclusive Interactive Leadership Assessments to help students strengthen their leadership abilities by providing them with individualized feedback based on their responses to each questionnaire. After completing each questionnaire, a student using the interactive eBook will receive an in-depth analysis of her or his scores as well as personalized, pragmatic suggestions for further developing her or his leadership.

You can find the eBook icons in the print and electronic versions of the text. Below is a guide to the icons:

“Ask the Author” video icon

SAGE journal article icon

Video icon

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Web icon

Acknowledgments I would like to express my appreciation to many individuals who directly or indirectly played a role in the development of this book. First, I would like to thank the many people at SAGE Publications, in particular my editor, Maggie Stanley, who along with her leadership team (Liz Thornton, Lauren Holmes, Neda Dallal, Katie Ancheta, Ashlee Blunk, Georgia Mclaughlin, and Gail Buschman) has competently guided this revision from the beginning review phase through the production phase. In addition, I would like to thank copy editor Melinda Masson and production editor Libby Larson. In their own unique ways, each of these people made valuable contributions that enhanced the overall quality of the book. Collectively, they are an extraordinary team that demonstrates the very highest standards of excellence in all that they do.

For their thoughtful and constructive feedback on this latest edition, I would like to thank the following reviewers:

Jens Beyer, Hochschule Anhalt Standort Bernburg Carl Blencke, University of Central Florida Roger Clark, NWN Corporation Dan Cunningham, McDaniel College D. Keith Gurley, University of Alabama at Birmingham Sat Ananda Hayden, University of Southern Mississippi Sharon Kabes, Southwest Minnesota State University Lorin Leone, Independence University Douglas Micklich, Illinois State University Bryan Patterson, Johnson C. Smith University, Northeastern University Robert W. Robertson, Independence University Lou L. Sabina, Stetson University Stephanie Schnurr, University of Warwick Douglas Threet, Foothill College Simone Wesner, Birkbeck, University of London Paula White, Independence University Cecilia Williams, Independence University

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For comprehensive reviews of past editions, I would like to thank the following reviewers:

Maureen Baldwin, Saint Ambrose University Barry L. Boyd, Texas A&M University Susan Bramlett Epps, East Tennessee State University Linda L. Brennan, Mercer University Shannon Brown, Benedictine University Lisa Burgoon, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Tom Butkiewicz, University of Redlands Patricia Cane, Klamath Community College Stephen C. Carlson, Piedmont College Melissa K. Carsten, Winthrop University James R. “Chip” Coldren Jr., Governors State University Barbara Collins, Cabrini College Stacey A. Cook, College of Marin Ronald J. Cugno, Nova Southeastern University Greg Czyszczon, James Madison University Douglas Davenport, Truman State University Edward Desmarais, Salem State College Marco Dowell, California State University, Dominguez Hills Tiffany Erk, Ivy Tech Community College of Indiana Leon Fraser, Rutgers Business School Jim Fullerton, Idaho State University Jennifer Garcia, Saint Leo University Don Green, Lincoln Christian University Francesca Grippa, Northeastern University Yael Hellman, Woodbury University Vanessa Hill, University of Louisiana at Lafayette Martha A. Hunt, NHTI—Concord’s Community College Jean Gabriel Jolivet, Southwestern College Ruth Klein, Le Moyne College Renee Kosiarek, North Central College Robert Larison, Eastern Oregon University Karen A. Longman, Azusa Pacific University Maureen Majury, Bellevue Community College James L. Morrison, University of Delaware Terry W. Mullins, University of North Carolina at Greensboro Jane Murtaugh, College of DuPage Joanne E. Nottingham, University of North Carolina, Wilmington

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Ramona Ortega-Liston, University of Akron Ron Parlett, Nova Southeastern University Bruce Peterson, Sonoma State University Joseph W. T. Pugh, Immaculata University Deana Raffo, Middle Tennessee State University Melody Rawlings, Northern Kentucky University Bronte H. Reynolds, California State University, Northridge Louis Rubino, California State University, Northridge Laurie A. Schreiner, Azusa Pacific University Thomas Shields, University of Richmond Pearl Sims, Peabody College of Vanderbilt University Bruce Tucker, Santa Fe Community College Mary Tucker, Ohio University John Tummons, University of Missouri Sameer Vaidya, Texas Wesleyan University Natalie N. Walker, Seminole State College Amy Wilson, University at Buffalo Laurie Woodward, University of South Florida

Critiques by these reviewers were invaluable in helping to focus my thinking and writing during the revision process.

I would like to thank Dr. Bernardo Ferdman for his helpful comments and suggestions on the “Embracing Diversity and Inclusion” chapter, and Terry Hammink for his assistance in the construction and scoring of the Ethical Leadership Style Questionnaire and James Ludema for his support.

For their outstanding work in developing creative resources for this edition, I am grateful to Isolde Anderson of Hope College, Matthew Creasy of the University of Delaware, Jeff Paul of the University of Tulsa, Lou Sabina of Stetson University, Andrea Smith-Hunter of Siena College, and Douglas Threet of Foothill College.

Finally, I wish to thank Marie Lee for her thorough editing and commitment and Laurel Northouse for her editorial insights and extraordinary support. It takes a lot of dedicated people to write a book, and I feel fortunate to have those people in my life.

In the electronic edition of the book you have purchased, there are several icons that reference links (videos, journal articles) to additional content.

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Though the electronic edition links are not live, all content referenced may be accessed at edge.sagepub.com/northouseintro4e . This URL is referenced at several points throughout your electronic edition.

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About the Author

Peter G. Northouse, PhD, is Professor Emeritus of Communication in the School of Communication at Western Michigan University. In addition to publications in professional journals, he is the author of Leadership: Theory and Practice (now in its seventh edition) and coauthor of Health Communication: Strategies for Health Professionals (now in its third edition) and Leadership Case Studies in Education. His scholarly and curricular interests include models of leadership,

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leadership assessment, ethical leadership, and leadership and group dynamics. For more than 30 years, he has taught undergraduate and graduate courses in leadership, interpersonal communication, and organizational communication on both the undergraduate and graduate levels. Currently, he is a consultant and lecturer on trends in leadership research, leadership development, and leadership education. He holds a doctorate in speech communication from the University of Denver, and master’s and bachelor’s degrees in communication education from Michigan State University.

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1 Understanding Leadership

Introduction This book is about what it takes to be a leader. Everyone, at some time in life, is asked to be a leader, whether to lead a classroom discussion, coach a children’s soccer team, or direct a fund-raising campaign. Many situations require leadership. A leader may have a high profile (e.g., an elected public official) or a low profile (e.g., a volunteer leader in Big Brothers Big Sisters), but in every situation there are leadership demands placed on the individual who is the leader. Being a leader is challenging, exciting, and rewarding, and carries with it many responsibilities. This chapter discusses different ways of looking at leadership and their impacts on what it means to be a leader.

What is Leadership?

Leadership Explained At the outset, it is important to address a basic question: What is leadership? Scholars who study leadership have struggled with this question for many decades and have written a great deal about the nature of leadership (Antonakis, Cianciolo, & Sternberg, 2004; Bass, 1990; Conger & Riggio, 2007). (See Box 1.1.)

In leadership literature, more than 100 different definitions of leadership have been identified (Rost, 1991). Despite these many definitions, a number of concepts are recognized by most people as accurately reflecting what it is to be a leader.

Leadership Basics

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“Leadership Is a Trait” First, leadership is thought of as a trait. A trait is a distinguishing quality of an individual, which is often inherited. Defining leadership as a trait means that each individual brings to the table certain qualities that influence the way he or she leads. Some leaders are confident, some are decisive, and still others are outgoing and sociable. Saying that leadership is a trait places a great deal of emphasis on the leader and on the leader’s special gifts. It follows the often-expressed belief “leaders are born, not made.” Some argue that focusing on traits makes leadership an elitist enterprise because it implies that only a few people with special talents will lead. Although there may be some truth to this argument, it can also be argued that all of us are born with a wide array of unique traits and that many of these traits can have a positive impact on our leadership. It also may be possible to modify or change some traits.

Through the years, researchers have identified a multitude of traits that are associated with leadership. In Chapter 2 we will discuss some key leadership traits, and in Chapter 3 we will explain how strength-based leadership is a variation of trait leadership. Although there are many important leadership traits, what is most important for leaders is having the required traits that a particular situation demands. For example, a chaotic emergency room at a hospital requires a leader who is insightful and decisive and can bring calm to the situation. Conversely, a high school classroom in which students are bored demands a teacher who is inspiring and creative. Effective leadership results when the leader engages the right traits in the right place at the right time.

“Leadership Is an Ability” In addition to being thought of as a trait, leadership is conceptualized as an ability. A person who has leadership ability is able to be a leader—that is, has the capacity to lead. While the term ability frequently refers to a natural capacity, ability can be acquired. For example, some people are naturally good at public speaking, while others rehearse to become comfortable speaking in public. Similarly, some people have the natural physical ability to excel in a sport, while others develop their athletic capacity through exercise and practice. In leadership, some people have the natural ability to lead, while others develop their leadership abilities

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through hard work and practice.

Box 1.1 The Evolution of Leadership

Leadership has long intrigued humankind and has been the topic of extensive literature for centuries. The earliest writings include philosophies of leadership such as Machiavelli’s The Prince (1531/2005) and biographies of great leaders. With the development of the social sciences during the 20th century, inquiry into leadership became prolific. Studies on leadership have emerged from every discipline “that has had some interest in the subject of leadership: anthropology, business administration, educational administration, history, military science, nursing administration, organizational behavior, philosophy, political scie

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