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Research a scholarly journal article on parenting (an article within the last 10 years). Provide a summary of that article.

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Research a scholarly journal article on parenting (an article within the last 10 years). Provide a summary of that article.

Research a scholarly journal article on parenting (an article within the last 10 years). Provide a summary of that article. Use the information that you found and what you learned from your course readings thus far and provide a response for the following.

  • Parents can be classified as authoritarian, permissive, authoritative, or uninvolved. Explain how parenting styles influence social development.
  • There are many varieties of early childhood education in the United States. Do you feel that parents should continue to have the freedom to choose whether their children should attend preschool and what types of preschools their children should attend? Or do you think the United States would benefit from a standard preschool policy that requires parents to enroll their children in accredited preschools?
  • Respond to atleast one posts- attached is student one post 

Research a scholarly journal article on parenting (an article within the last 10 years). Provide a summary of that article. Use the information that you found and what you learned from your course readings thus far and provide a response for the following.

Zarra-Nezhad et al. (2014) looked at the effects of children’s social withdrawal and their parents’ parenting styles on the children’s socioemotional development. Teachers rated children (n = 314) on prosocial skills and internalizing and externalizing behaviors at three different times between 1st and 3rd grade. Mothers and fathers also filled out questionnaires about their affection, behavioral control, and psychological control at the same time the teachers rated their children (Zarra-Nezhad et al., 2014).

The results indicated that children who showed social withdrawal were more susceptible to the negative effects of low affection from their mothers, and that psychological control by the parents was correlated with high levels of internalizing problems (Zarra-Nezhad et al., 2014). Children who are socially withdrawn put their own well-being at risk in order to please their mothers (Zarra-Nezhad et al., 2014).

Parents can be classified as authoritarian, permissive, authoritative, or uninvolved. Explain how parenting styles influence social development.

Authoritarian parents are restrictive, punitive, and firmly control their children through rigid rules and force (i.e., spanking). Authoritative parents allow their children to be independent, but set limits and controls on their actions, with some give-and-take between parent and child. Permissive, or indulgent, parents are very involved with their children but allow them to do whatever they wish with very few rules or boundaries. Uninvolved, or neglectful, parents are not involved with their children and prioritize their own lives over taking care of their children (Santrock et al., 2021).

The type of parenting affects children’s social development in different ways. Children of authoritarian parents tend to be unhappy, fearful, and anxious about comparing themselves to other people. They keep to themselves, are poor communicators, and may be aggressive towards others (Santrock et al., 2021). Children of neglectful parents are often socially incompetent because they had no social role models; they have poor self-control, do not handle independence well, have low self-esteem, are immature, and may grow into truant or delinquent teenagers (Santrock et al., 2021). Permissive parenting leads to children who are disrespectful and cannot control their behavior. These children may also be self-centered, bad at following directions, and struggle to maintain relationships with their peers (Santrock et al., 2021). Authoritative parenting produces the most well-adjusted children; they are usually happy, show self-control and self-reliance, and strive for achievements. They are good at getting along with their peers, cooperative, and are able to cope with stress (Santrock et al., 2021).

There are many varieties of early childhood education in the United States. Do you feel that parents should continue to have the freedom to choose whether their children should attend preschool and what types of preschools their children should attend? Or do you think the United States would benefit from a standard preschool policy that requires parents to enroll their children in accredited preschools?

There is a wealth of research that shows high-quality preschool produces significant and long-lasting benefits for children who attend (Melhuish, 2011). Attendance at a high-quality preschool leads to adults who have higher educational levels, incomes, socioeconomic statuses, and rates of insurance coverage at age 28 than their peers who did not attend. In addition, these children also have lower rates of substance abuse and legal problems than their peers who did not attend (Melhuish, 2011).

Given these significant benefits, I believe that, much like K-12 education, parents should be required to enroll their children in an accredited preschool. Early childhood is a critical developmental period, and the more we support high-quality educational programs for children, the better the benefits will be for society. Parental freedom of choice is great for parents who are invested in their children and who have the socioeconomic means to enroll their children in high-quality preschool programs. However, not all parents make good choices, care about their children’s development, or have the means to access high-quality childcare. By making it mandatory and available to all, more children can benefit from these services, which will ultimately lead to significant benefits for them later in life.

References

Melhuish, E. C. (2011). Preschool matters. Science, 333(6040), 299-300.

Santrock, J. W., Deater-Deckard, K., & Lansford, J. E. (2021). Child development. (15th ed.).

McGraw-Hill Education.

Zarra-Nezhad, M., Kiuru, N., Aunola, K., Zarra-Nezhad, M., Ahonen, T., Poikkeus, A. M.,

Lerkkanen, M. K., & Nurmi, J. E. (2014). Social withdrawal in children moderates the association between parenting styles and the children’s own socioemotional development. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 55(11), 1260-1269.

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