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Suppose you were seeking a child-care setting for your child who is deaf. What would you want it to be like, and why? List and describe 4 things


Suppose you were seeking a child-care setting for your child who is deaf. What would you want it to be like, and why? List and describe 4 things

  

Your answers can be in point form. Then, please discuss your posting and others’ postings, with members of your group. 

1- Suppose you were seeking a child-care setting for your child who is deaf. What would you want it to be like, and why? List and describe 4 things (that specifically pertain to children who are deaf) that you would look for, when visiting such centers (4 points)

2- Suppose you were seeking a child-care setting for your child who is blind. What would you want it to be like, and why? List and describe 4 things (that specifically pertain to children who are blind) that you would look for, when visiting such centers (4 points)

3- List and describe three reasons why the social-interactionist perspective is attractive to many investigators of language development? (3 points)

4- Fran frequently corrects her 17-month-old son Jeremy’s attempts to talk and—fearing that he won’t use words—refuses to respond to his gestures. How might Fran be contributing to Jeremy’s slow language progress? (3 points)

Language development, for many child development researchers, is one of our most exceptional achievements as human beings. In fact, for some researchers, language is the distinguishing characteristic of the human species. If so, when does language actually begin to develop? Many would guess that it occurs within the first year of a young child’s life, when they utter their first words. Not so! Long before the age of 12 months, when children typically utter their first words, a great deal of developmental work has been done, in the pre-lingual period, to prepare for this momentous event.

Consequently, in this Lesson you will review language development from infancy to age six, investigating aspects of prelingual and postlingual communication. Once you have a good grounding in typical language development, you will begin to tackle atypical language development, focusing on the linguistic patterns of children with hearing loss, intellectual disability, autism, and specific language disorders. You will also briefly review speech impairments and fluency disorders.

Learning Objectives

When you have completed this Lesson, you will be able to:

· Describe the theories of language development, and indicate the emphasis each places on innate and environmental influences;

· Describe major milestones of language development in the early childhood years, and ways adults can support infants’, toddlers’ and young children’s emerging language and communication capacities;

· Discuss why language comprehension develops ahead of language production;

· Describe individual and cultural differences in early language development and the factors that influence these differences;

· Describe the Aboriginal perspective on the development of language in young children;

· Explain how hearing loss, intellectual disability, autism, and specific language and speech disorders affect communication development.

Language Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood

Regardless of how it occurs, infants prepare for language in many ways during their first year. First words appear at around 12 months, and 2-word utterances appear between 18 months and 2 years. At the same time, substantial individual differences exist in the rate and style of the early language process. Conversational give-and-take and child-directed speech (a simplified form of parental language) support infants’ and toddlers’ efforts to become competent speakers. Finally, as we have already mentioned throughout this course, children also have the benefit of their innate characteristics and cultural influences that in many ways also support the development of their language and communication skills.

· Now, please go to pages 233-236 in the 2012 edition, pages 231-234 in the 2016 edition, and pages 227-231 in the 2020 edition, and read the Theories of Language Development section. These would be the behaviourist, nativist, and interactionist theoretical perspectives. As you read, think about the emphasis each theory places on innate abilities and environmental influences. As with other theories that cover other developmental areas, there are divergent opinions. Theorists in language development are no different.

· Now, let’s review the definition of some very important terms. What is language? What is Speech? What is communication? In order to learn about these terms, please visit the Playing with Words ( http://www.playingwithwords365.com/what-is-the-difference-between-speech-and-language// ) website. There, you will learn what these terms mean, and read about examples of each of them.

· Now, return to your text, and read further sections in Language Development (pages 236-241 in the 2012 edition, pages 235-240 in the 2016 edition, and pages 231-235 in the 2020 edition). These sections include Getting Ready to Talk, First Words, The Two-Word Utterance Phase, Comprehension versus Production, and Individual & Cultural Differences. Please take a moment to watch this lovely video of an infant babbling ( https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bPGekZreJLc ). Pay close attention to how Mommy and Daddy are responding to and encouraging this little guy to babble, communicate and interact with them. Also, please notice how well they are able to read their baby’s signals, and how they stopped, when they felt that the baby has had enough!

· Next, in your text, read the last section in Language Development (pages241-243 in the 2012 edition, pages 240-241 in the 2016 edition, and pages 236-237 in the 2020 edition) on Supporting Early Language Development.

· Finally, please take a moment to watch a few really interesting videos, about the development of speech and language. The first video can be found here ( https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-g464VAomog&list=PL8XVPOU-7gty78Z5rhTa-PAoQ78cJirKT ), and when you get to this youtube video, you will find a few other videos, on the right side of your screen. If you have time, do watch these videos, as they are super cute and super informative 🙂

Language Development in Early Childhood

Now, we will continue our review of typical language development by focusing on children in the early childhood or preschool years. You will learn that language acquisition is closely connected to cognitive development. You will also learn that between 2 and 6 years of age, children make incredible leaps in the development of their language and communication skills.

Please return to your text and read the Language Development section of Chapter 9, on pages 354-359 in the 2012 edition, pages 348-353 in the 2016 edition, and pages 344-350 in the 2020 edition. There you will review the basics of language acquisition, Vocabulary, Grammar, and Conversation. This part of Chapter 9 concludes with the Supporting Language Learning in Early Childhood section, which is a great read!

To understand the development of language in Canadian children, we have to be aware of the multilingual features of Canadian society. Some Canadian children learn English and another language simultaneously, for a wide variety of reasons. In some cases, it is because the mother speaks one language and the father speaks another language. In other cases, it is because the language spoken at home is not the language spoken in the child’s community or school.

In order to learn more about the subject of bilingualism, please visit the following website ( http://linguistlist.org/ask-ling/biling.cfm ), where you can get answers to questions like “can a child learn more than one language at same time?” and “does learning more than one language delay the development of language in children?”

Please note that there are several really good websites that you can visit, and that will give you a great overview of the speech and langauge milestones that typically developing children should reach, as they develop their speech and language skills. One such great website is the developmental milestones for language and speech ( https://www.asha.org/slp/schools/prof-consult/norms/ ), which lists developmental milestones, in typically developing children. You will be surprised to see that some speech sounds are incredibly difficult to pronounce and are therefore not fully mastered by most children, until they are 6 to 8 years old!

Before leaving this section, let’s look at language development from an Aboriginal perspective. There are a few great articles that you can look at, and that would give a great idea about how Aboriginal communities view the development of language (and literacy), in young children. Please start by looking at the document entitled Aboriginal Young Children’s Language and Literacy Development ( http://www.afn.ca/uploads/files/education2/aboriginalyoungchildrens.pdf ). It discusses several important topics, including the language and literacy needs of Aboriginal children and Aboriginal approaches to language and literacy. Next, please read the “First Nations Elders and Parents’ Views on Supporting Children’s Language Development ( http://ecdip.org/docs/pdf/HELP%20Lang%20EP%20CASLPA%2005%20pdf.pdf )” document. This great article is published by the University of Victoria.

Atypical Language Development

While most children appear to master language skills easily and without specific instruction, other children may be slow language learners and, in some cases, fail to acquire some or all of the language skills that are considered typical of most children.

Please start this section by reading the “Atypical Language Development” book chapter, which is available through the Library Course Reserves. This chapter reviews major conditions that adversely affect both the speed and mastery of language learning: hearing loss, intellectual disability, autism, and specific language impairment. In the latter section of the chapter, the author makes the distinction between language and speech disorders. Speech disorders, or the inability to articulate some aspects of the sound components of language, may occur in isolation of or in combination with language or other disorders. The author covers cleft palate and stuttering, in this section. Please take a moment to watch this informative video ( https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X9F8wLVRQRE ) about cleft lip and palate, from Boston Children’s Hospital. And before moving to the next section, let’s meet some amazing children who stutter ( https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rw04IXYpQgQ ), and who will tell you a little bit about this disorder.

Another common childhood language disorder is Childhood Apraxia of Speech. In order to learn about this disorder, please read the “Does My Child Have Childhood Apraxia of Speech” book chapter, available through the Library Course Reserves. And to learn more about this disorder, please take a moment to visit the Apraxia Kids ( https://www.apraxia-kids.org/ ) website, where you will find a wealth of information about this condition.

There are many interesting websites that describe speech and language difficulties in children. The website of The American Speech Language and Hearing Association ( https://www.asha.org/ ) is one of them. It provides you with a lot of useful and practical information about language and speech disorders. Such disorders include speech sound disorders ( https://www.asha.org/Practice-Portal/Clinical-Topics/Articulation-and-Phonology/ ).

Extremes in Language Development

We now know that language development is no small feat. Although it comes naturally to the vast majority of children, some children do struggle with its acquisition, for a variety of reasons. We know that the child’s biological make-up, culture and environment are all important determinants of language outcomes. What we also know is that language cannot develop without social interaction with others (Gleason & Ratner, 2013). We are social beings, and we need social interaction in order to develop language and communication skills. We know, from rare and extreme cases of child abuse, that children who are subjected to extreme abuse and neglect end up suffering greatly, in all developmental areas, including language. One such child is known as “Genie”. She was a child who was severely abused and neglected by her family, and as a result suffered serious developmental delays, including delays in the area of language. If you have time, please take a moment to meet Genie, by watching this NOVA special documentary entitled “Secret of the Wild Child. ( https://www.dailymotion.com/video/x357ouw )”

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In this lesson, we will review the refinement of sensory and perceptual competence beyond the newborn stage, through toddlerhood, and into the sixth year of life. To accomplish this task, we will look at specific sections of chapter 5 in our textbook, and book chapters that are available through the Library Course Reserves. These readings will cover both typical and atypical development of vision and hearing.

Before we proceed, please read the following citation from “A Strong Beginning” (Stewart, K, & Cornell, A. 2004, p. 87) on the subject of “The Role of the Senses.”

“Perceptual information obtained through the senses (vision, hearing, touch, smell, and taste) and the processing of this information facilitates the child’s understanding of his physical and social environment. Each sense provides some specific qualities that, when combined with other sensory information, help us understand our environmental interactions. This is a very complex and dynamic process since senses are dependent on each other in the learning process. In addition, each sense is not equal in the quality of information obtained. It has been estimated that vision accounts for approximately 75 percent of learning during the early years, with the other senses making up the other 25 percent. When all the senses are working together, the quality of the child’s perceptions is considerably enhanced, and the integration of the information is processed instantaneously. The young child then has the opportunity to gather information about the “wholeness” of the experience.”

Learning Objectives

When you have completed this Lesson, you will be able to:

· Understand the difference between sensation and perception;

· Describe the changes in hearing and in-depth, pattern, object, and inter-modal perception that take place during infancy;

· Discuss the typical development of vision;

· Describe different types of visual impairments, and how they impact a child’s development;

· Discuss the typical development of hearing;

· Describe different types of hearing loss, and how they impact a child’s development.

Review of Sensation and Perception

In this section of Lesson 5, we will start with a clarification of the terms sensation and perception. According to Berk (2020), the term sensation implies a passive process. In other words, it is what a baby detects in response to a stimulus such as the sensation of coolness on the face when exposed to a cold breeze. On the other hand, the term perception is perceived as an active process where a stimulus is not only detected, but organized and interpreted in order to find meaning in what is sensed. For example, the baby senses coolness on the face, then turns its face towards its mother’s body for warmth, fussing in displeasure.

With a fuller understanding of sensation and perception, please go to your textbook and read about Perceptual Development on pages 189-199 in the 2012 edition, pages 187-197 in the 2016 edition, and pages 184-192 in the 2020 edition. This section covers Hearing, Vision, Object Perception, Intermodal Perception, and Understanding Perceptual Development. As you read through these sections, pause to consider how typcial infants develop a sense of musical phrasing between 4 and 7 months of age, and how by the age of 12 months, they will have already developed an appreciation for certain melodies. Now, stop to consider how a deaf child with a cochlear implant might perceive music. A multi-professional paper presented by a team that includes the disciplines of psychology, audiology, and otolaryngology (Nakata, T., Trehub, S. E., Kanda, Y., & Takahashi, H., 2006), addresses this question. These authors state that cochlear implants provide children with less than perfect pitch information, and as a result, children with implants may have difficulty differentiating familiar music from pitch cues. However, in spite of this difficulty, and unlike adults implanted later in life, these children enjoy musical activities and often like to sing. The authors found that the pitch range of deaf children’s songs was about one third the range used by typically developing children aged 5-9 years. Further, deaf children tended to confuse falling and rising pitches. Consequently, they reproduced the rhythm of familiar songs, but not the melody. They also needed to sing familiar songs often in order to remember the words and rhythms.

· Now, please go to the Zero to Three website where you will find an interesting article entitled “Babies and their senses ( https://www.zerotothree.org/resources/242-babies-and-their-senses )”. Notice how the authors bring our attention to differences in babies’ preferences for sensory experience, and how early sensory experiences can have life-long effects. They highlight the need to be aware of these preferences rather than being guided by prescriptions for each developmental stage. They also point out that the senses guide the actions of other areas of development. These statements are as true for atypically developing children as they are for typically developing children.

Low Vision & Vision Loss

In the last section, you learned that humans depend on vision more than any other sense, to explore their environment. You also learned that there is a lot of inter-dependence between the various senses.

· Your next reading activity is the book chapter entitled “Vision and Visual Impairment”, which can be accessed through the Library Course Reserves. As well as reviewing the structure and function of the eye, the authors of this chapter discuss ocular development and the development of visual skills. They also describe vision assessment, causes of visual impairment and common childhood eye problems. Additionally, they briefly discuss the development of children with severe visual impairment. Take your time reading this discussion of abnormalities of the visual system. As you read, note the many reasons why prompt and accurate visual assessment is essential to optimize visual outcomes for children with visual impairments.

· Now, to find out more about common eye problems in children, some of which have been described above, please go to Eye Conditions ( https://www.prcvi.org/resources/resources-for-teachers/visual-conditions/ ) section of the BC Ministry of Education’s “Provincial Resource Center for the Visually Impaired” website. There you will learn about different eye conditions, their symptoms and characteristics. Please note that if you can download PDF copies of these disorders, if that is of interest to you. Next, please take a moment to visit the following website ( http://www.ohiolionseyeresearch.com/eye-center/simulations/#Normal ), which will show you what some individuals with different types of vision loss might see.

Before moving on to the next section, please take a moment to meet the Planson family and their beautiful daughter, Emma ( https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sZu1CwSfm0g ), who is blind. Listen to this family as they tell you about their journey with their daughter, how atypical this journey may be, in some ways, but also how typical and “just like everyone else” this journey is, in other ways!

Impact of Blindness and Low Vision on Development

The effect that blindness or low vision has on development depends on the type of impairment; the degree to which the child is visually impaired; whether the condition is static, progressive or fluctuating; the presence of other disabilities that may affect development; and environmental factors. Of course, these effects are tempered by the individual child’s biological characteristics and resilience, parental support, and the timing and quality of early intervention by a qualified team of inter-professional specialists working in the fields of visual impairment and early intervention.

In order to learn more about the impact of blindness and low vision on the development of the child, please visit the following website ( https://raisingchildren.net.au/disability/guide-to-disabilities/assessment-diagnosis/vision-impairment ), as it provides great and useful information about the possible effects of vision loss, on the development of the child.

Although this course covers development only, you may wish to learn about adatptations/accommodations for slightly older children with vision loss. If that is the case, please visit the following website ( https://www.vsb.bc.ca/Student_Support/Learning_Support_Services/Provincial_Resource_Programs/prcvi/Pages/default.aspx ). You will learn a lot about intervention for children with low vision and vision loss in ECED 441.

Finally and before leaving this section, please take a moment to meet Dillon ( https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7Ycdpxu51OA ). He plays football, despite being blind, and enjoys every moment of it! He also serves as a great inspiration to all those who work with him, adults and children alike!

Hearing Loss

Hearing loss can be described in many ways. It can be unilateral or bilateral (affecting one or both ears); conductive (associated with the outer and middle ear), sensorineural (associated with the inner ear or cochlea), or auditory neuropathic (associated with the auditory nerve). It can be pre-lingual (before the child has learned to speak) or post-lingual (after the child has learned to speak). It can also be minimal, mild, moderate, severe or profound. Further, a hearing loss can be a “sloping” hearing loss in which case the loss is not the same across all frequencies. Individuals can also have a fluctuating or progressive hearing loss.

Please start this section by reading the “Hearing and Deafness” book chapter (available through the Library Course Reserves). In addition to describing the anatomy of the ear, the authors go into detail about the different types and causes of hearing loss. They also discuss the importance of newborn hearing screening, tests used to identify children with hearing loss, and various treatment options for these conditions (you will learn more about treatment options for children with hearing loss in ECED 441). These authors have covered the complex issues of hearing loss in a very comprehensive way, and you will soon see that hearing loss, just like vision loss, must be identified early so that interventions can start within the infant’s first months of life.

To learn more about how we hear, and what might prevent us from hearing, please watch this short but informative video:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=az-5MSiXMGU&t=7s

Then, to learn more about the various issues that were discussed in the “Hearing and Deafness” chapter, please go to the My Baby’s Hearing website, where you can learn about Hearing Aids ( https://www.babyhearing.org/devices/hearing-aids ) and cochlear implants ( https://www.babyhearing.org/devices/cochlear-implants ).

To obtain a Frequency Spectrum of Familiar Sounds chart, please visit the following website ( https://mss-p-007-delivery.sitecorecontenthub.cloud/api/public/content/5f6f1f65cd3c45ceb9365f248d84f724?v=ac0db401&MOD=AJPERES&CACHEID=ROOTWORKSPACE-5d6bf9c8-0e15-433c-aa1b-898df93c345d-kGZSNiR ). Note that the speech sounds on this chart are only approximations. In order to get a fuller understanding of hearing loss, you may ask yourself the following questions: what hearing level in decibels would you have if you heard a jet engine, a phone ringing, or a vacuum cleaner? Which sounds would be difficult to hear if you had a hearing loss of 25 decibels at 1500 Hz? What about a loss of 30 decibels at 6000 Hz?

Next, please watch these Hearing Loss Simulations ( https://www.cliniqueauditive.com/en/hearing-health/hearing-loss-simulator ). Make sure you check out what people with varying degrees of hearing loss are able to hear, both in quiet and noisy places. This will hopefully give you an inkling as to what individuals with varying degrees of hearing loss can and cannot hear, in different environments.

Now, please check out hearing loss section of the Health Link BC ( https://www.healthlinkbc.ca/health-topics/hearing-loss ) website in order to learn about recognizing early signs of hearing loss in infants and young children. This website will also teach you about possible ways of protecting children from acquired hearing loss! Please note that you can download the information on this website as a PDF document, and save it for future reference. You may also wish to visit the BC Early Hearing Screening ( http://www.phsa.ca/our-services/programs-services/bc-early-hearing-program ) website, where you can learn about screening and other services related to hearing, in BC.

Now, before moving to the next section, please watch this video ( https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=juijzg2xMD0 ) and listen to a parent as she discusses the fact that her baby has a hearing loss.

Impact of Hearing Loss on Development

The first few years of a child’ life are the most important years for the acquisition of speech and language. These are the years when a child’s brain is highly plastic and is forming many synapses (Berk, 2020). To take full advantage of this sensitive period of development, a child must have typical auditory structures and sensorineural functioning in order to acquire speech and language.

Children who are deaf or significantly hard of hearing will probably have difficulty developing phonological and speech perception abilities needed for language learning. Without early identification and intervention, further risks for this group of children may include difficulties with behaviour, academic achievement, socialization, and psychological well-being. It is also necessary to mention that children who are hard of hearing in the minimal to moderate range, while having an easier time acquiring speech and language skills, could also develop difficulties with behaviour, academic achievement, socialization, and psychological well-being, without early identification and intervention. Early identification and intervention by teams of hearing loss specialists and early interventionists involved in home guidance, daycares, preschools and schools have made incredible progress in recent years to reduce many of the risk factors mentioned above.

Early identification and intervention by hearing loss specialists for children who are deaf or significantly hard of hearing means that they can now be assessed for cochlear implant ( https://www.babyhearing.org/devices/cochlear-implants ) candidacy after a trial of hearing aids within their first year of life. If they are candidates, they are generally implanted by 12 to 18 months of age. Sign language and auditory-oral communication modes may both be used prior to surgery, and may be carried on post surgery. Children who are not candidates for cochlear implants can be supported with hearing aids ( https://kidshealth.org/en/teens/hearing-aids.html ), an FM system ( https://hearingloss.ca/products/fm-systems/ ) plus oral and/or signing modes of communication within special programs for deaf children.

Children who are hard of hearing, regardless of the degree of hearing loss, are now receiving the benefits of early identification and intervention by specialists. With appropriate amplification options and itinerant teachers for the deaf and hard hearing, these children generally function well within typical preschool and/or school settings.

Interestingly enough, Deaf children born to Deaf signing parents, usually proceed with language learning that follows a pattern similar to typical development, due to the rich signing environments in which they live (Berk, 2020). They quickly move on to developing a strong communication mode within their families and signing communities. However, one problem in recent years is that the wide use of cochlear implants for children who are deaf or significantly hard of hearing has reduced the number of new signing children connecting with the Deaf community. In fact, some members of the Deaf community are against the use of cochlear implants. They feel that being deaf is just an attribute, not a disab

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