# Using material from Weeks 3 and 4, you and your colleagues will prepare a report that presents the calculated financial ratios

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## 11 Mar Using material from Weeks 3 and 4, you and your colleagues will prepare a report that presents the calculated financial ratios

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Using material from Weeks 3 and 4, you and your colleagues will prepare a report that presents the calculated financial ratios and an explanation of what the calculated ratios mean. This is where meaning is found in financial statements.

The Final Presentation:

- Should be at least six to eight pages long (excluding cover page and references page) and must be compliant with APA style as outlined by the
__Writing Center (Links to an external site.)__’s__APA Style (Links to an external site.)__ - Your report must include the following:
- You must offer an introduction and a strong thesis statement. Tell your reader what you intend to accomplish. You should also identify the limitations that prevent a time-series or cross-sectional analysis of the derived ratios.
- Present your ratio analysis and demonstrate your ability to derive meaning from financial statement. Be sure to present ration calculations and interpretations grouped under designated section headings (see example below).
- Summarize your findings and identify takeaways for your reader.

The text is a primary reference source and should be used in addition to at least one additional reference.

The following ratios were defined, computed, and reviewed in prior weeks. The computations are the basis for extracting meaning from the financial statements provided.

Each category heading should appear as a section heading in your final report. An adequate description of a ratios meaning can be accomplished in two to four sentences. For example, Total Asset Turnover is a general efficiency ratio that measures management’s efficient or inefficient use of short-term and long-term assets. The ratio is calculated as follows:

Total Asset Turnover = Sales/Total Assets. Assume sales of $8,000,000 and total assets of

$4,000,000. Total Asset Turnover in this example – $8,000,000/$4.000.000 = 2.

We might describe the calculation as follows:

Total Asset Turnover is a general measure of management’s use of total assets to generate sales.

The larger the number, the better the use of assets. In this case, sales revenue of $2.00 per asset dollar indicates management is using assets reasonable well. A negative ratio would be a concern.

Also note that you are approaching this assignment as an entrepreneur with access to limited information. You have no historical data: the financial statements you are using are your pro forma statements. You also lack access to competitor financials. As such, time-series and cross-sectional benchmarking cannot be accomplished. As such, use your judgment and generally accepted standards about financial ratios to develop meaning as was done in the Total Asset Turnover example above.

**Required Ratios**

Liquidity Ratios

- Current Ratio
- Quick Ratio

Leverage Ratios

- Debt to Equity
- Debt to Total Assets
- Interest Coverage

Management Efficiency Ratios

- Accounts Receivable Turnover
- Days Sales Outstanding
- Days of Inventory
- Accounts Payable Turnover

Profitability Ratios

- Gross Margin
- Operating Margin
- Return on Assets
- Return on Equity

In your presentation,

- Create an introduction and a strong thesis statement. Identify the limitations that prevent a time-series or cross-sectional analysis of the derived ratios.
- Create a ratio analysis that derives meaning from financial statements by grouping derived ratios under designated four section headings (Liquidity Ratios, etc).
- Create a summary that includes three findings the team feels are significant.

The Extracting Meaning from Financial Statements presentation

For further assistance with the formatting and the title page, refer to __APA Formatting for Microsoft Word (Links to an external site.)__.

- Must utilize academic voice. See the
__Academic Voice (Links to an external site.)__resource for additional guidance. - Must include an introduction and conclusion paragraph. Your introduction paragraph needs to end with a clear thesis statement that indicates the purpose of your paper.

PROJECT RATIOS 2

**Project Ratios**

**(No Corrective Action Offered by Instructor)**

Kevin Sessions

BUS 368 Venture Capital & Banking

Edward Crawford

Feb 28, 2022

**Introduction**

Financial ratios are helpful tools for business managers and stakeholders to assess and compare financial relationships between accounts on a company’s financial statements. They allow for financial analysis throughout a company’s history, economic, or employment market (Ahrendsen, B. L., & Katchova, A. L., 2018). We will discuss the various financial ratios and their impact on business financial position.

**Liquidity Ratios**

A liquidity ratio is a financial ratio used to assess a company’s capacity to meet its short-term borrowing needs (Asbari, M. 2020). The current, quick, and cash ratios are the three most crucial liquidity ratios. During credit evaluation, investors consider choosing liquidity ratios above 1.0. A company with healthy liquidity ratios has a high chance of being approved for credit.

Current Ratio = Current Assets / Current Liabilities

When current assets exceed current liabilities, the ratio is larger than 1.0, which is desirable. If the ratio is equal to 1.0, it indicates that the current assets are just enough to cater for the short-term liabilities, and when the ratio is less than 1.0, it indicates that the corporation is unable to meet its short-term obligations (Putra, A. H. P. K.,2021)

Quick Ratio = (Cash + Accounts Receivables + Marketable Securities) / Current Liabilities

Divide the total of cash and cash equivalents, short-term investments, and account receivables by the company’s current obligations to get the quick ratio. When a company’s quick ratio is less than 1, it does not have enough liquid assets to cover its current liabilities and should be avoided. If the quick ratio is significantly lower than the current ratio, current assets rely mainly on inventory. Because inventories are not included in current assets, the fast ratio is more conservative than the current ratio (Asbari, M. 2020).

Leverage Ratios

A leverage ratio is a type of financial ratio that shows how much debt a company has compared to other entities on its statement of financial position, profit and loss account, or cash flow statement (Pedrosa, Í. 2019). These ratios show how debt and equity finances can be used to finance the company’s assets and activities.

**Debt to Equity = Total liabilities / Total Shareholders’ Equity. **

This ratio indicates how much debt you have every $1.00 of equity. A debt-to-equity ratio of 0.5 means that for every $1.00 in equity, you have $0.50 in debt. A debt-to-equity ratio greater than 1.0 shows more debt than equity. So, if the debt-to-equity ratio is 1.5, you have $1.50 in debt for every $1.00 in equity. A debt-to-equity ratio below 1.0 is considered to be good. However, a negative ratio is too risky for an entity (Katchova, A. L. 2018).

Debt to Total Assets = Total liabilities / Total assets

When measured over a while, this ratio of debt-financed assets to total assets demonstrates how a company’s assets have grown and acquired through time. A ratio of more than one indicates that debt is used to fund a significant share of the assets. i.e., the corporation owes more money than it owns (Pedrosa, Í. 2019). A high ratio can also signal that a corporation is putting itself in danger of owing on its debts whenever interest rates unexpectedly spike.

Interest Coverage = Earnings Before Interest and Tax (EBIT) / Interest expense

It is a leverage metric used to assess a firm’s ability to pay interest on its existing obligations. Lenders frequently utilize this ratio to assess the riskiness of lending money to a company. A greater interest coverage ratio implies that the company is better financially and can satisfy its interest commitments. On the other hand, an interest coverage ratio of less than one indicates that the company is in dire financial shape and cannot pay off its short-term interest commitments (Katchova, A. L. 2018).

Management Efficiency Ratios

Efficiency Ratio shows the proportion of how much a business manages its day-to-day operations. These ratios, in general, look at how well a corporation uses its assets and manages its debts (Guerard, J. B.,2021)

Accounts Receivable Turnover = Revenue / Average Accounts Receivables

This ratio indicates how rapidly a business recovers payments from its clients. It is a measure of how effective a firm’s credit practices are and the amount of receivables investment required to keep the company’s sales level up. A higher accounts receivable turnover is a benefit to any entity. If an organization’s accounts receivable turnover is too low, it implies that it is having trouble retrieving from its clients or that it is extending credit too freely (Kumoro, D. F. C.,2020)

Accounts Payable Turnover = Total Purchases / Average Accounts Payables

Although accounts payable are liabilities rather than assets, their pattern is significant since they are a significant funding source for operating activities, influencing operational efficiency. This percentage is significant since it indicates how well a business manages its bills. A higher accounts payable turnover ratio implies that the company is not keeping track of its bills well or that its suppliers are not providing advantageous credit terms. It is preferable to have a low turnover of accounts payable (Kumoro, D. F. C., 2020).

Days Sales Outstanding = (Accounts Receivable / Net Credit Sales) x Number of days

Day’s sales outstanding measures the average number of days that it takes a company to collect payment for a sale. It is often determined on a monthly, quarterly, or annual basis. To compute DSO, divide the average accounts receivable during a given period by the total value of credit sales during the same period and multiply the result by the number of days in the period measured (Yuwono, T., & Asbari, M. 2020).

Days of Inventory = (Average Inventory / Cost of Sales) x 365 days

This is the average number of days a corporation retains its goods before selling. Divide the average inventory cost by the cost of items sold, then multiply by the time integration, normally 365 days. The number of days in inventory can determine whether or not a company is working efficiently (Yuwono, T., & Asbari, M. 2020).

Profitability Ratios

Investors use profitability ratios to measure and evaluate how well a company can generate income (profit) from its financial operations over time (Krithika, M. 2017). They demonstrate how effectively a business uses its assets to generate profit and value for its shareholders. The high profitability ratio shows that the company is doing well in revenue, profit, and cash flow.

Gross Margin = Gross profit / Sales Revenue

Gross profit margin is calculated by dividing gross profit by sales revenue. It displays how much money a company makes after deducting the costs of producing its commodities. A higher gross profit margin ratio indicates that core activities are more efficient, allowing the company to meet expenditures, fixed costs, royalties, and depreciation while still producing net earnings. A low-profit margin, on the other hand, shows a high cost of goods sold, which can cause poor purchasing policies, low selling prices, low sales, severe market competition, or ineffective sales promotion techniques (Guerard, J. B., 2021)

Operating Margin = Operating Income / Sales

Operating profit margin – examines earnings as a proportion of sales before deducting interest and taxes. Companies with high operating profit margins can better cover fixed costs and interest on commitments, have a higher chance of surviving a global recession, and offer cheaper pricing than counterparts with lower profits. Because competent management may significantly improve a company’s profitability by reducing its operational costs, the operating profit margin is usually used to gauge the strength of its administration (Yuwono, T., & Asbari, M. 2020).

Return on Assets = Net income / Total Assets

This ratio expresses how much profit a corporation makes after taxes for every dollar of assets it owns. It also calculates a company’s asset intensity. The lower a company’s earnings per dollar of assets, the more asset-intensive it is. To produce revenue, very asset-intensive businesses must make significant investments in machinery and equipment (Gultekin, M. 2021).

Return on Equity = Net Income / Shareholders Equity

Return on equity (ROE) is a profitability ratio that measures how successfully a firm manages its capital from its shareholders. The higher the return on equity (ROE), the better its management is at creating earnings from its equity funding. As with any financial data, comparing companies in the same industry when using ROE (Purnomo, A. 2018).

Conclusion

Financial ratios determine the profitability, solvency, liquidity level, and efficiency to survive in the industry. They are used to compare the financial statements of companies in the same industry (Asbari, M. 2020).

**References**

Ahrendsen, B. L., & Katchova, A. L. (2012). Financial ratio analysis using ARMS data. Agricultural Finance Review.

Balakrishnan, V., Kothandapani, G., & Krithika, M. (2017). A study on Profitability Ratio Analysis of the Sundaram Finance Ltd in Chennai. International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology, 2(5), 135-137.

Guerard, J. B., Saxena, A., & Gultekin, M. (2021). Financing Current Operations and Efficiency Ratio Analysis. In Quantitative Corporate Finance (pp. 79-98). Springer, Cham.

HASANUDDIN, R., DARMAN, D., TAUFAN, M. Y., SALIM, A., MUSLIM, M., & Putra, A. H. P. K. (2021). The Effect of Firm Size, Debt, Current Ratio, and Investment Opportunity Set on Earnings Quality: An Empirical Study in Indonesia. The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business, 8(6), 179-188.

Kumoro, D. F. C., Novitasari, D., Yuwono, T., & Asbari, M. (2020). Analysis of the Effect of Quick Ratio (QR), Total Assets Turn Over (TATO), and Debt To Equity Ratio (DER) on Return On Equity (ROE) at PT. XYZ. Journal of Industrial Engineering & Management Research, 1(3), 166-183.

Pedrosa, Í. (2019). Firms’ leverage ratio and the Financial Instability Hypothesis: an empirical investigation for the US economy (1970–2014). Cambridge journal of economics, 43(6), 1499-1523.

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PROJECT FINANCIAL RATIOS 10

**Project Financial Ratios**

Kevin Sessions

BUS 368 Venture Capital & Banking

Edward Crawford

Mar 7, 2022

**Introduction**

A sustainable business requires effective financial management. Calculation of financial ratios help to determine a company’s financial position (Kadim et al., 2020). I have calculated various financial ratios based on the financial statements. Some of the financial ratios I have calculated include management efficiency ratio, liquidity ratio, profitability ratio, and company’s leverage ratio.

**Financial Ratios**

1. **Liquidity ratio**

a. **Current ratio**

Current ratio = current assets / current liabilities.

Current ratio (201y) – $2,334,000 / $2,444,900

Current ratio = 0.95

Current ratio (201x) – $2,179,000 / $2,165,847

Current ratio = 1

b. **Quick ratio**

Quick ratio = (current assets – inventory) / current liabilities

Quick ratio (201y) = ($2,262,000 – $650, 000) / $2,444,900

Quick ratio = 0.66

Quick ratio (201x) = ($1,792,000 – $650, 000) / $2,165,847

Quick ratio = 0.53

c. **Cash ratio**

Cash ratio = (cash + cash equivalence) / total current liabilities

Cash ratio (201y) = $190,000 / $2,444,900

Cash ratio = 0.08

Cash ratio (201x) = $170,000 / $779,000

Cash ratio = 0.22

2. **Leverage ratio**

a. **Debt to equity ratio**

Debt to equity ratio = total liabilities / total shareholder equity

Debt to equity ratio (201y) = $2,444,900 / $2,690,000

Debt to equity ratio – 0.91

Debt to equity ratio (201x) = $2,165,847 / $2,790,000

Debt to equity ratio – 0.78

b. **Equity multiplier**

Equity multiplier = total assets / total shareholder’s equity

Equity multiplier (201y) = $2,334,000 / $2,690,000

Equity multiplier – 0.87

Equity multiplier (201x) = $2,179,000 / $2,790,000

Equity multiplier – 0.78

c. **Debt to capitalization ratio**

Debt to capital ratio = debt / (debt +shareholders equity)

Debt to equity ratio (201y) = $2,444,900 / $5,134,900

Debt to equity ratio – 0.48

Debt to equity ratio (201x) = $2,165,847 / $4,955,847

Debt to equity ratio – 0.44

d. **Degree of financial ratio**

Degree of financial ratio = %change in EPS / % change in EBIT

EPS = net income / number of stocks

Degree of financial ratio (201y) = 129.45 / $325,855

Degree of financial ratio- 3.97%

Degree of financial ratio (201x) = 95.75 /$235,855

Degree of financial ratio – 0.04%

e. **Consumer leverage ratio**

Consumer leverage ratio = total household debt / personal disposable income

Consumer leverage ratio (201y) = $2,444,900 / $103,516

Consumer leverage ratio – 23.60

Consumer leverage ratio (201x) = $2,165,847 / $76,606

Consumer leverage ratio – 28.27

f. **Debt to EBITDA ratio**

Debt to EBITDA ratio = total debt / EBITDA

Debt to EBITDA ratio (201y) = $2,444,900 / $325,855

Debt to EBITDA ratio – 7.5

Debt to EBITDA ratio (201x) = $2,165,847 / $235,855

Debt to EBITDA ratio – 9.18

g. **Debt to ENITDAX RATIO**

h. **Interest coverage ratio**

Interest coverage ratio = EBIT / interest expenses

Interest coverage ratio (201y) = $325,855 / $48,905

Interest coverage ratio – 6.66

Interest coverage ratio (201x) = $235,855 / $28,905

Interest coverage ratio- 8.15

i. **Fixed charge coverage ratio**

Fixed charge coverage ratio = (EBIT + lease payment) / (interest payment + lease payment)

Lease payment = revenue – operating income – Cost of Goods Sold 1292948

Fixed charge coverage ratio = ($325,855 + $1,267,093) / ($48,905 + $1,267,093)

Fixed charge coverage ratio –1.3×

Fixed charge coverage ratio = ($235,855 + $1,057,093) / ($28,905 + $1,057,093)

Fixed charge coverage ratio – 1.20 ×

3. **Management efficiency ratio**

a. **Inventory turnover ratio**

Inventory turnover ratio = Cost of Goods Sold / inventory

Inventory turnover ratio (201y) = $5,300,807 / $650,000

Inventory turnover ratio – 8.16

Inventory turnover ratio (201x) = $4,600,807 / $650,000

Inventory turnover ratio- 7.07

b. **Asset turnover ratio**

Total asset turnover = total sales / total assets

Asset turnover (201y) – $6,893,755 / $2,262,000

Total asset turnover = 3.05x

Asset turnover (201x) – $5,893,755 / $1,792,000

Total asset turnover = 3.29x

Overall asset turnover (201x) – 3.29x

c. **Fixed asset turnover**

Fixed asset turnover = net sales / (fixed asset – depreciation) 1595727

Fixed asset turnover (201y) = $6,893,755 / ($2,100,000 – $364,273)

Fixed asset turnover – 3.97

Fixed asset turnover (201x) = $5,893,755 / ($1,950,000 -$354,273)

Fixed asset turnover – 3.69

d. **Asset turnover ratio**

Asset turnover ratio = total sales revenue / average annual assets

Asset turnover ratio (201y) = $6,893,755 / $2,334,000

Asset turnover ratio – 2.95

Asset turnover ratio (201x) = $5,893,755 / $2,179,000

Asset turnover ratio – 2.70

e. **Account payable turnover**

Account payable turnover ratio (201y) = total purchases / average account payable

Total purchases = (ending inventory + cost of goods) – beginning inventory

($650,000 + $6,893,755) – $650,000 = $6,893,755

Account payable turnover ratio = $6,893,755 / ($500,000 / 2)

Account payable turnover ratio – 27.57

1. **Profitability ratio**

a. **Return on equity**

Return on equity =net income / shareholder equity

Return on equity (201y) = $103,516 / $2,690,000

Return on equity – 0.04

Return on equity (201x) = $76,606 / $2,790,000

Return on equity – 0.03

b. **Price to earnings ratio**

Price to earnings ratio = share price / earnings per share

Price to earnings ratio (201y) = 129.23 / 112.5

Price to earnings ratio – 1.15

Price to earnings ratio (201x) = 95.75 / 112.5

Price to earnings ratio – 0.85

c. **Gross profit**

Gross profit = (revenue – cost of goods sold) / revenue* 100

Gross profit (201y) = ($6,893,755 – $5,300,807) / $6,893,755 * 100

Gross profit – 23.10 %

Gross profit (201x) = ($5,893,755 – $4,600,807) / $5,893,755 * 100

Gross profit – 18.75 %

d. **Net profit**

Net profit = (net profit / revenue) * 100

Net profit (201y) = $103,516 / $265,426

Net profit – 38%

Net profit (201x) = ($76,606 / $196,426) * 100

Net profit – 38%

e. **Return on assets**

Return on assets = net income / total assets

Return on assets (201y) = $103,516 / $2,334,000

Return on assets – 0.05

Return on assets (201x) = $76,606 / $2,179,000

Return on assets – 0.04

f. **Return on capital employed **

Return on capital employed = EBIT / capital employed

Capital employed = total assets – current liabilities

Return on capital employed (201y) = $325,855 / ($2,334,000 -$951,104)

Return on capital employed – 0.24

Return on capital employed (201x) = $235,855 / ($2,179,000 -$779,000)

Return on capital employed – 0.17

**Conclusion**

By calculating the company’s financial ratio(s), I have determined that the company is solvent, and investors can purchase shares and expect returns on their investment. The company has a high inventory turnover of 8.19. This indicates that the company achieves efficiency in purchase and production. Additionally, the company stocking is efficient and does not experience selling issues. Lastly, the company’s return on equity is -0.04. This indicates that the company is making more profits, thus having long-term financial viability (Zorn et al., 2018). However, the company’s cash ratio is less than 0.22, which is less than one. This means that there are more current liabilities than cash and indicates the company has insufficient cash to pay short-term debts.

**References**

Kadim, A., Sunardi, N., & Husain, T. (2020). The modeling firm’s value based on financial

ratios, intellectual capital and dividend policy. *Accounting*, *6*(5), 859-870.

Zorn, A., Esteves, M., Baur, I., & Lips, M. (2018). Financial ratios as indicators of

economic sustainability: A quantitative analysis for Swiss dairy farms. *Sustainability*, *10*(8), 2942.

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