20 Mar Write a 3 to 5 page summary of each assigned chapter explaining the important concepts and principles. Chapter 1, 2, 3 Total 9
Write a 3 to 5 page summary of each assigned chapter explaining the important concepts and principles.
Chapter 1, 2, 3
Total 9 Pages. No need of any outside references
Jerome A. Katz Saint Louis University
Richard P. Green II Texas A&M University– San Antonio
Entrepreneurial Small Business
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ENTREPRENEURIAL SMALL BUSINESS, SIXTH EDITION
Published by McGraw Hill LLC, 1325 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10121. Copyright ©2021 by McGraw Hill LLC. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Previous editions ©2018, 2014, and 2011. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of McGraw Hill LLC, including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Names: Katz, Jerome A., author. | Green, Richard P., author. Title: Entrepreneurial small business / Jerome Katz, Richard Green. Description: Sixth Edition. | Dubuque : McGraw-Hill Education, 2020. | Revised edition of the authors’ | Audience: Ages 18+ | Audience: Grades 10-12 Identifiers: LCCN 2020008069 (print) | LCCN 2020008070 (ebook) | ISBN 9781260260540 (hardcover) | ISBN 9781260676754 (spiral bound) | ISBN 9781260676686 (ebook) Subjects: LCSH: New business enterprises—Management. | Entrepreneurship. Classification: LCC HD62.7 .K385 2020 (print) | LCC HD62.7 (ebook) | DDC 658.02/2—dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2020008069 LC ebook record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2020008070
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To our parents, who gave us inspiration.
To our children, who gave us motivation.
To our spouses, who gave us dedication.
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ABOUT THE AUTHORS
Jerome A. Katz Jerome (Jerry) Katz is the Robert H. Brockhaus Endowed Chair in Entrepreneur- ship at the Richard A. Chaifetz School of Business, Saint Louis University. Prior to his coming to Saint Louis University he was an assistant professor of management at the Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania. Jerry holds a PhD in organiza- tional psychology from the University of Michigan, and other graduate degrees from Harvard and the University of Memphis.
Throughout the years he has worked in or advised his family’s businesses includ- ing stints working in the family’s discount department store, sporting goods whole- saling, pharmacies, auto parts jobbing, and secondary-market wholesaling of frozen food. As a professor he has served as adviser to over 500 business plans developed by students at Saint Louis University, whose Entrepreneurship Program (which Jerry leads) has been nationally ranked every year since 1994.
He was also the founder and director of Saint Louis University’s Billiken Angels Network, which was ranked by the HALO Report as one of the top angel groups in the United States. Ear- lier in his career he served as associate director for the Missouri State Small Business Develop- ment Centers. He has taught, trained, or consulted on entrepreneurship education and business development services in Germany, Spain, China, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Korea, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, Brazil, Singapore, Israel, Croatia, and the West Bank. His consulting firm, J. A. Katz & Associates, has a client list including the Soros, GE, Kauffman and Coleman Foundations, as well as the Korea Entrepreneurship Foundation, the Jerusalem Insti- tute for Israel Studies, Sweden’s Entrepreneurship and Small Business Research Institute, the International Labor Organization (ILO), RISEbusiness, the National Federation of Independent Business, the National Science Foundation, and the Committee of 200.
As a researcher, Jerry has done work on entrepreneurship, organizational emergence, oppor- tunity analysis, and the discipline and infrastructure of entrepreneurship education. Today 8 of his papers can be found in 11 different compendia of “classic” works in entrepreneurship and small business. He was a co-recipient of the 2013 Foundational Paper Award of the Entrepre- neurship Division of the Academy of Management, and Google Scholar reports Jerry’s papers have been cited over 11,000 times. Jerry founded and edited two book series, Advances in Entre- preneurship, Firm Emergence and Growth (published by Emerald) and Entrepreneurship and the Management of Growing Enterprises (published by Sage) and has edited over a dozen special is- sues. He sits on the editorial boards of 11 journals: Journal of Small Business Management, Entre- preneurship and Regional Development, International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, Journal of International Entrepreneurship, International Entrepreneurship and Manage- ment Journal, International Journal of Technoentrepreneurship, Experiential Entrepreneurship Exer- cises Journal, USASBE Annals of Entrepreneurship Education, Ekonomski Vjesnik Econviews, Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, and Entrepreneurship Education & Pedagogy.
Following his parents’ tradition of civic entrepreneurship, Jerry has served in a variety of roles including a governor of the Academy of Management, chair of the Entrepreneurship Divi- sion of the Academy of Management, and senior vice president for research and publications of the International Council for Small Business. He serves on a number of local, national, and in- ternational boards promoting entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship education and training for students and the general public.
For these efforts, he has been a recipient of more than a dozen major professional awards including Babson’s Appel Prize for Entrepreneurship Education, the Family Firm Institute’s LeVan Award for Interdisciplinary Contributions to Family Business, the Outstanding Lifetime Achievement Award given by the Academy of Management’s Entrepreneurship Division, as well as Mentorship Awards from the Entrepreneurship Division of the Academy of Management, and from Saint Louis University’s Graduate Student Association, and Saint Louis University’s Chaifetz School of Business Alumni Award for Outstanding Educator. He was elected the fiftieth fellow of the U.S. Association for Small Business and Entrepreneurship.
Courtesy of Jerome Katz
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Richard P. Green II Richard Green is a successful serial entrepreneur who has started, built, and sold several busi- nesses across an extraordinarily wide range of industries. His first business was an electrical sign repair company, which he began while an undergraduate student. Since then, Richard has started two other sign companies, a structural steel business, a manufacturer of stainless steel products, a real estate brokerage, a tax return preparation service, and a bed-and-breakfast. During the “go-go banking” years he held controlling interest in a state-chartered bank. More recently, Richard, with his long-time associate Richard Carter, con- ducted the start-up of Lineas Aereas Azteca (Azteca Airlines); served as co-owner with his spouse of a San Antonio bed-and-breakfast, the Adams House; and served as chief financial officer for a high-tech start-up, Celldyne Biopharma LLC. As a corporate entrepreneur, Richard has worked on expansion plans for companies as diverse as the Mexican airline Aerolineas Internacionales, Minneapolis-based Land O’Lakes, Inc., and the Venezuelan dairy Criozuca, S.A.
Richard brings a similarly diverse set of skills to ESB, ranging from a pilot’s li- cense (he was a professional pilot, instructor, and check airman for TWA) to a CPA. A late-life PhD (from Saint Louis University), he has been an assistant and associate professor of accounting at the University of the Incarnate Word and Webster University, and is currently coordinator of the accounting program at Texas A&M University–San Antonio. His academic achievements are similarly impressive, with papers in the proceedings of North American Case Research Association (NACRA), American Accounting Association Midwest, the American Association for Accounting and Finance, and the Interna- tional Council for Small Business, as well as journals such as the Atlantic Economic Journal and Simulation & Gaming. Richard also authored more than three dozen articles in popular maga- zines on topics ranging from personal computers to financial decision making. Richard is co- developer (with Jerry) of the measures for financial sophistication in the Panel Study of Entrepreneurial Dynamics, and is senior author of Investigating Entrepreneurial Opportunities: A Practical Guide for Due Diligence (Sage). He has received research grants from Pharmacia Corpo- ration and the Kauffman Foundation.
Always active in professional and civic roles, Richard’s contributions have ranged from serv- ing as chair of the Airline Pilots Association’s grievance committee to serving on the City of San Antonio’s Air Transportation Advisory Committee. He is a member of the American Accounting Association, Academy of Management, United States Association for Small Business and Entrepreneurship, North American Case Writers Association, and the World Association for Case Method Research and Application.
About the Authors v
Courtesy of Richard P. Green II
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This book got its start with a simple question from my mother, “What is the difference between what you teach and what your father did for a living?”
We were sitting shiva (which is the ancient Jewish tradition of mourning), in this case after the death of my father, a Polish immigrant to the United States who had been a small business owner for almost 50 years at the time of his death in 2003. When sitting shiva the immediate family mostly sits and reflects and prays for a week, so my mother, sister, and I had plenty of time to talk. And talking as we did, the question came up.
I gathered my thoughts for a minute. First off, I realized that throughout his life my father had picked up on my comments about the very rare high-growth, high-tech businesses that came through my class. Somehow he thought that was who I had as my run-of-the-mill student. That was funny to me, because in teaching entrepreneurship for nearly 20 years, fewer than a dozen of the several hundred business plans I worked on involved high-growth, high-tech firms.
But thinking about what my father heard, I realized that I talk about two sets of rules, one for when I have a potentially high-growth business and another for the more conventional businesses that most of my students start and that my own father had mastered three times in his life. The answer to my mother came out this way:
Conventional Small Businesses High-Growth Ventures
Autonomy Involve key others
Control as goal Growth as goal
Financial independence Wealth
Fund with your own money Fund with other people’s money
Cash flow as key Profits as key
Cash crunch? Tighten belt Cash crunch? Sell more
The list goes on, and you will have a chance to see it in Chapter 1. You will discover that the list exemplifies the prevention versus promotion focus discussed in Chapter 2, but this list gives you an idea of the difference. I told my mother that when I am teaching to students who have really big dreams, I try to get them to create businesses that would be innovative, using new tech- nologies or markets. These would be businesses that could grow to be big businesses, creating major wealth for their founders. The founders are in it for the wealth. They expect to go after others’ investment in the business and they expect to give away some of their autonomy along with their stock. My father’s businesses were imitative, businesses like those already existing. He did the businesses to have a comfortable income and wanted to limit his growth to what he could comfortably control personally. No investors, no one second-guessing him. When times got tough, my father would cut his expenses; in a high-growth business that’s when it needs to sell more. My father’s business was built on his personal reputation, while high-growth firms try to maximize the reputation of the firm or its products.
I kept talking, but as I listened to myself, I realized that I had never seen a book that talked about small business the way I described it. I have students who have started such businesses—in fact, the vast majority of my students have started businesses in their own ways much like my father’s three firms. I continue to help out those alums with advice, just as I did my father and his business. But in the end, what was important was that they were a different kind of business, and I felt that no book really addressed it that way anymore.
That was why I decided to write this book, and get Richard to join me in the effort. Why Richard? Because I knew a person with a story like his would make a great co-author for a book like this. His story goes like this:
When Jerry first asked me if I would be interested in co-authoring a new small business management text, I was a bit reluctant. Where would I create time for such a daunting task? I asked myself. But when he described his vision—a text about starting
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and managing the type of small businesses that we patronize every day—restaurants, beauty salons, plumbing companies, lawn care firms—I became enthusiastic. Yes, I definitely wanted to be part of a project that would deal with the 98 percent of businesses that start small and stay that way, not the 2 percent that become CNNs, Oracles, and Dells.
In many ways, I exemplify the type of entrepreneur for whom we wrote this book: people who start and operate the many ordinary enterprises with which you do business every day.
Unlike Jerry, I come from a family of employees. Neither of my grandfathers and none of my many uncles and aunts were ever business owners. My father began working as an employee while he was still in high school, and he continued as an employee until his retirement. I, on the other hand, started my first entrepreneurial enterprise the summer I was 12. I began my first “real” business the summer I was 18. In the years since, I have started several businesses and purchased three. In between businesses I have been, as my father and his father, an employee.
Not a single business that I have owned has ever been high tech, high growth, or even high innovation. I started every one either because I needed a source of income right then or because I expected to lose my current job very soon and didn’t want to live on unemployment. I have been an owner-manager in the electrical sign business, structural steel erection, light manufacturing, consumer electronics retailing, real estate brokerage, construction, farming, and lodging.
Why so many businesses, you may ask. My mother probably would say that I have a short attention span. However, the real answer is that each time I started a business I took the first opportunity available, not necessarily the best opportunity. And what was the result? Some, such as the Grandview Sign Service Co., went broke (but not before it paid for flying lessons). Signgraphics, Inc. was sold. Paul’s Sound Shop was a victim of recession. The real estate brokerage was financially very successful, but I hated the business. When my top-producing salesman finally passed his broker’s exam, I eagerly made a deal for him to buy the company. I am still actively engaged in construction and in the lodging industry.
My interest in entrepreneurship as a field of study stems from this varied experience. I asked myself many questions, including, Why did I just make a living in the sign business, while Ted Turner made himself a billionaire from the same beginnings? Why is it that Paul’s Sound Shop didn’t become a retail behemoth as Best Buy did, although both started about the same time? And am I a success because I made money in several different businesses, or a failure because none became big businesses? This book is largely the result of my search for answers to these questions.
Together, Richard and I crafted our approach for Entrepreneurial Small Business, and as we will point up in the business planning chapter, all plans start with a vision.
The ESB Vision In Entrepreneurial Small Business, you will not find a lot on venture capital, and very little on strategic concepts like “first to market.” What you will find is a lot of coverage of the kinds of businesses most people (and especially most undergraduate and lifelong learning students) really do start—small businesses in traditional industries and markets. These businesses are vitally important—we will tell you why we think so in a moment—and helping them survive has long been an art. Today like never before that art is supplemented by science, and that is where your class—and this book—can help. In ESB we try to build a book that can combine the art of small business survival and the science of small business success. If you can get the benefit of both before you get into your business, you are likely to do better than those who have to get by with the advice they can catch on the fly as they get started.
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ESB takes its information from the nearly 150 journals in entrepreneurship (https://sites. google.com/a/slu.edu/eweb/core-publications-in-entrepreneurship-and-related-fields); generating new understanding of what it takes to be successful from national studies like the Panel Study of Entrepreneurial Dynamics (PSED) at www.icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/ICPSR/studies/37203, where we have the benefit of the experience and wisdom of Kelly Shaver (College of Charleston) to help generate many of the statistics we use in this volume. We also use the Kauffman Firm Study (www.kauffman.org/what-we-do/research/kauffman-firm-survey-series), their Indicators of En- trepreneurship (https://indicators.kauffman.org/), the surveys of the National Federation of Inde- pendent Business (www.nfib.com/foundations/research-center/monthly-reports/; http://www .411sbfacts.com/); global studies like the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) at www .gemconsortium.org; the surveys conducted by the U.S. government (conveniently gathered together at www.nfib.com/foundations/research-center/additional-resources/data-sources/); and the best of modern wisdom from experts in entrepreneurship from government, media, business, and the Internet. The point of ESB is to get that knowledge and make it available to you, the small business owner of today or tomorrow. You and your business deserve every break you can get, and our economy and society need you to survive and succeed.
Why is that so important? It turns out that small business is essential for big business; it is essential for high-technology, high-growth business; and it is essential to our communities. In a world of relentless cost cutting and global competition, big businesses outsource everything but their most critical tasks. Often the best expertise, the best service, or sometimes even the best price exists in small businesses. Whether it is janitorial services or new product development, big businesses increasingly depend on small businesses to get their jobs done.
Small business is essential to our communities in much the same way. If you come from a small town or a neighborhood that gets bypassed by the big chains, you know how important small busi- nesses can be. Without small businesses there might be no places to buy products or needed ser- vices. Big business and small communities depend on small business to get the job done.
For high-tech businesses the same argument can be made, but there is also another issue—that small business defines the community in important ways. If you work in IT, biotech, nanotech, medicine, media, or the like, when you finish your day in the lab or cubicle, where do you want to be? In a soulless, interchangeable town full of franchised outlets or a vibrant and diverse locale? These members of the “creative class,” as Richard Florida1 calls them, are demanding customers. They make their livings from their minds, and those minds crave stimulation, whether at work or at play. A big part of stimulation comes from being diverse, different, special, and that is where small businesses come into play. You can go to a dozen different small coffeebars and each is dis- tinctive. Go to a dozen Starbucks and they are all pretty much the same. There are times when we all crave the expected, but the creative class also often craves the unexpected, and that is much more likely in small businesses than chains and large firms. No high-tech center can survive as a place to live without the excitement and variety a population of small businesses can provide.
The fact is that every small business is important for two reasons: first, because we can never be sure which ones are unimportant (if you can believe there could be such a thing), and second, it takes a lot of small businesses to support and enable one billion-dollar business.
For us, one of the lessons of the Panel Study of Entrepreneurial Dynamics (PSED) was that while high tech might be the ship folks hope will come in, for it to work that ship needs to be supported by an ocean of small businesses. Billion-dollar high-tech companies are rare. Less than 1 in 100,000 start-ups achieves that billion-dollar level. The irony is that nobody knows which of the next 100,000 start-ups is going to be that next billion-dollar business. All we can do is try and start as many as possible, knowing the more that get started, the greater the chance of that one breakthrough success.
The fact is that nearly every big business got its start as a small business. Hewlett-Packard re- ally did start in a garage, and Walmart started small in rural Arkansas. They are giants today, but some part of their culture was defined in those early days when they were small businesses.
1R. L. Florida, The Rise of the Creative Class: And How It’s Transforming Work, Leisure, Community and Everyday Life (New York: Basic Books, 2002).
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When they started, none of their founders knew they were going to become billionaires, and neither did their investors, bankers, lawyers, or friends. You start your business, you take your chances, and the rest of us hope you make it.
In the meantime, however, those hundreds of thousands of start-ups literally help support big business and high-tech businesses. They do this by providing jobs and wages to half the country so people can buy things. They do this by providing products and services to big and high-tech busi- nesses, and they do this by training and preparing the next generation of workers and owners. Small businesses for the past 25 years have been the major source of new jobs created in the United States. While Fortune 500 businesses have cut their payrolls by millions, the slack created has been filled by small businesses and especially those that grow to multiple sites or multiple shifts.
When you start on the path to creating your own small business, you make life better for us all. Entrepreneurial Small Business is dedicated to giving you the specific help you need to get started and be successful.
The Sixth Edition of ESB In each edition of Entrepreneurial Small Business we try to follow a theme. The sixth edition’s theme was “take it to the ‘net.” The Internet has made it possible for more people to share more ideas about entrepreneurship than ever before. For every major entrepreneurship magazine on- line, like Entrepreneur.com or Inc.com, there are hundreds of websites, blogs, and YouTube chan- nels created by entrepreneurs and business experts with a laser-sharp focus on a few issues that are key to them. The goal for this book was to link students to the best of what’s out there. Cura- tion plays a big role in making the sixth edition of ESB.
We’ve added almost three dozen Learn More Online (LMO) boxes which contain some of the best sites on the web to learn more about topics in the text, or find applications or online services embodying the kinds of actions you need to take as a start-up entrepreneur. We’ve added over 100 new sites in the narrative of the text, and updated URLs for all of the more than 750 websites mentioned throughout the text. Building on thought leaders in entrepreneurship from ESB’s fifth edition like Eric Ries, Alex Osterwalder, Steve Blank, and Alex Bruton, we have added new leading-edge ideas like the PESO Model of Media from Gini Dietrich, IDEO’s feasi- bility model, and Isaac Jeffries’s fitting of it to the business model canvas, Brad Feld’s vision of the structure of start-up communities, and Mike Moyer’s Slicing Pie approach to figuring out equity for start-up teams.
As is true for every edition, there are updates throughout—updated numbers, counts, and sta- tistics; updated URLs; updated and new examples; and updates on people from prior editions throughout this edition.
Instructors using ESB asked for even more skill modules and experiential exercises, and the sixth edition has 54 skill modules and 102 experiential exercises. Together these represent the largest number of behavioral activities ever gathered in a small business or entrepreneurship text.
We continue building on the great resources available to entrepreneurs from government and private sources. There include the blogs of Customerdevlabs.com, Justin Wilcox’s remarkable efforts to make seeking out customers and workable ideas using the latest techniques and tech- nology. But other examples abound, such as the canvases of BMfiddle.com, or the readily under- standable approach to valuing businesses that comes from Valuations.com. We’ve added skill modules leveraging Facebook.com’s Audience Insights and the newly revamped Census.gov data access web pages.
If you look closely at the materials from others we mention and include in the text, you may notice that while we use many of those ideas and techniques, we don’t always follow their ap- proach very closely. In the end, it comes from being true to our own philosophy. We started the preface by comparing traditional small businesses to high-growth firms. A lot of today’s models think first of firms in the Silicon Valley, the world’s greatest concentration of founders and inves- tors pursuing high-growth entrepreneurship. But there are so many people creating and investing
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that no one has time for a business plan—to write them or to read them. People in Silicon Valley proclaim “the business plan is dead!” To match their pace you create a pitch deck, a business model canvas, and a set of financials. Internet-driven businesses are the bread-and-butter of Silicon Valley’s industry.
But 99 percent of us starting businesses are not in Silicon Valley, and the vast majority of us are not starting Internet-driven or app businesses. We get funding from friends, family, and bank- ers, not venture capitalists roaming the coffeeshops. When regular people (and even most an- gels) in the rest of the country consider investing, they want to see a business plan. And for businesses that will take years to become successful—most manufacturing, most professions, most services, and even most retailing and wholesaling—you need to think through how you will operate and fund yourself for the years it will take until your business matures into its best self. An app can go from zero to operational in a weekend (that’s what StartupWeekend.org and hack- athons are all about; look at the story of InvisibleGirlfriend.com) and live through 10 iterations within the first week. An accounting firm, or a restaurant, or a new backpack will take longer to get going and be made successful.
In Silicon Valley, entrepreneurs are thick on the ground. There is expertise everywhere, so you ask for it, or trade for it, or buy it. In Silicon Valley you are known by the team you’ve assembled. The team is the best indicator of your business’s capabilities. But in the rest of the country, the majority of businesses consist of only the entrepreneur, or the entrepreneur and one other per- son, and often while there are other entrepreneurs and help around, it takes a lot more effort to find them and get what you need. So an approach where you, the entrepreneur, have to be more self-reliant, more do-it-yourself, is essential to getting done the crucial jobs of starting a business everywhere but Silicon Valley. ESB talks about accounting, marketing, human resources, and a host of other topics in more depth than lean business practices or business model canvas ap- proaches typically do. In the end, lean business practices are often all about the high-growth (aka “scalable”) businesses, while ESB is focused on the traditional “main street” businesses that make up the bulk of our economy and our lives. Where lean approaches can help main street busi- nesses, we use them. But we stay true to our focus on the businesses you are most likely to start.
As you will see in the acknowledgments, we get feedback from many professors, instructors, and students. We work hard to use these insights to improve the coverage, flow, and usefulness of the text for students and faculty alike. This involves a few major changes among many small changes such as these:
Chapter 1: The chapter is updated in terms of the statistics on small business and the web- sites, people, and businesses profiled. We’ve added material on the entrepreneurial process to help better explain our approach to the start-up process, and help those familiar with lean busi- ness practices get a feel for the ESB approach. W
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