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You have been hired as the manager of a casual dining restaurant. After a few days on the job, you notice that one server, Graham, seems to be


You have been hired as the manager of a casual dining restaurant. After a few days on the job, you notice that one server, Graham, seems to be

Business & Finance / Management

 

1. You have been hired as the manager of a casual dining restaurant. After a few days on the job, you notice that one server, Graham, seems to be unhappy and his attitude might be spreading. Please articulate what plan of action you would take to address Graham’s attitude. What is the reasoning for your actions?

This is to be in narrative form. Bullet points should not to be used. The paper should be at least 2 pages in length, Times New Roman 12-pt font, double-spaced, 1 inch margins and utilizing at least one outside scholarly or professional source related to organizational behavior. This does not mean blogs or websites. This source should be a published article in a scholarly journal. This source should provide substance and not just be mentioned briefly to fulfill this criteria. The textbook should also be utilized. Do not use quotes. Do not insert excess line spacing. APA formatting and citation should be used. 

Book:

Essentials of Organizational Behavior

Fifteenth Edition

Chapter 3

Attitudes and Job Satisfaction

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Learning Objectives

3.1 Contrast the three components of an attitude.

3.2 Summarize the relationship between attitudes and behavior.

3.3 Compare the major job attitudes.

3.4 Identify the two approaches for measuring job satisfaction.

3.5 Summarize the main causes of job satisfaction.

3.6 Identify three outcomes of job satisfaction.

3.7 Identify four employee responses to job dissatisfaction.

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Attitudes Learning Objective 3.1

Attitudes: evaluative statements – either favorable or unfavorable – concerning objects, people, or events

Reflect how one feels about something

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Attitudes are statements that make an evaluation about objects, people, or events. They offer a favorable or unfavorable view that reflects how one feels about something.

3

The Components of an Attitude (Exhibit 3-1)

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Attitudes are made up of three components. The cognitive component is composed of the belief in the way things are. The affective component is the more critical part of the attitude, as it calls upon the emotions or feelings. The behavioral component describes the intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something. These three components work together to aid in our understanding of the complexity of an attitude and the potential relationship between attitudes and behavior.

Long Description:

The details of the diagram are as below:

Cognitive: evaluation. My supervisor gave a promotion to a co-worker who deserved it less than I do. My supervisor is unfair.

Affective: feeling. I dislike my supervisor!

Behavioral: action. I’m looking for other work; I’ve complained about my supervisor to anyone who would listen.

All three components lead to negative attitude toward supervisor. The connection is shown via bi-directional arrows.

Connections between the following components is also shown in this diagram:

Cognitive and affective

Affective and behavioral

Behavioral and cognitive.

Text in the diagram reads: Cognition, affect, and behavior are closely related.

4

Attitudes and Behavior Learning Objective 3.2

The most powerful moderators of the attitude-behavior relationships are:

Importance

Correspondence to behavior

Accessibility

Social pressures

Direct personal experience

Knowing attitudes helps predict behavior

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Some variables do moderate the relationship between attitude and behavior. These factors include the importance of the attitude, the correspondence of the attitude to the behavior, the accessibility of the attitude, the existence of social pressures on behavior and the personal and direct experience of the attitude.

These variables will impact the ability to estimate how a certain attitude will predict behavior.

5

Attitudes and Behavior (1 of 2)

Cognitive dissonance: any inconsistency between two or more attitudes, or between behavior and attitudes

Individuals seek to minimize dissonance

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Sometimes we observe people who will change what they say so it doesn’t contradict their behavior. When attitudes and behaviors don’t line up, individuals will experience cognitive dissonance. This incongruity is uncomfortable, and individuals will seek to reduce the dissonance to find consistency.

6

Attitudes and Behavior (2 of 2)

Desire to reduce dissonance is determined by:

The importance of the elements creating the dissonance

The degree of influence the individual believes he or she has over the elements

The rewards that may be involved in dissonance

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People are willing to live with some discomfort, but the degree to which this is true depends upon the importance of the element that is creating the cognitive dissonance, how much influence the individual has in the situation, and the rewards that are available.

7

Job Satisfaction and Job Involvement Learning Objective 3.3

Job satisfaction

A positive feeling about the job

Job involvement

Degree to which people psychologically identify with their jobs

Psychological empowerment

Beliefs in the degree of influence over the job, competence on the job, autonomy, and job meaningfulness

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

The field of organizational behavior focuses on how attitudes will influence the workplace.

There are several major job attitudes we will look at throughout the book. The first is job satisfaction, which is the positive feeling about the job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics. The second is job involvement. Job involvement looks at the degree of psychological identification with the job. An additional job attitude is psychological empowerment, the belief in the degree of influence over the job, competence in the job, autonomy, and job meaningfulness.

8

Organizational Commitment

Organizational commitment

The degree to which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in the organization

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A very important job attitude is organizational commitment or identifying with a particular organization and its goals.

Employees who are committed will be less likely to engage in work withdrawal.

9

Perceived Organizational Support

Perceived organizational support

The degree to which employees believe the organization values their contributions and cares about their well-being

The influence of power distance

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Employees also respond to how they perceive the organization supports them or POS. The more support they believe they are receiving, the more positive their job attitude will be.

An important cultural influence on POS is power distance. In low power-distance countries people are more likely to view work as an exchange than as a moral obligation, so employees look for reasons to feel supported by their organizations.

10

Employee Engagement

Employee engagement

The degree of enthusiasm an employee feels for the job

High cost of disengagement

Affect on organizational outcomes

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Employee engagement is the degree of enthusiasm or devotion an employee feels for the job. Highly engaged employees have a passion for their work.

Disengaged employees have created a real concern for organizations. One study suggests that organizations can lose up to $550 billion annually in lost productivity due to disengaged employees.

Employee engagement is moderately linked to many positive work outcomes – including employee and organizational performance. Higher levels of engagement have been associated with higher levels of customer satisfaction and lower levels of turnover and accidents.

11

How Do I Measure Job Satisfaction? Learning Objective 3.4

Measuring job satisfaction:

Single global rating method

Only a few general questions

Remarkably accurate

Summation score method

Identifies key elements in the job and asks for specific feeling about them

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Job satisfaction is important to recognize because of its bottom line impact. Two approaches are popular to measure it.

One method for measure is the Single Global Rating method. This method asks one question such as “How satisfied are you with your job?” and gives options such as extremely satisfied to extremely dissatisfied. It does not go into the many facets of a job, so it does not help the organization break down where the problems are.

The Summation Score Method is more sophisticated in that it asks about the various job components and breaks down how employees are specifically feeling about the different aspects of the job; thus it offers a more comprehensive look at job satisfaction.

12

Average Job Satisfaction Levels by Facet (Exhibit 3-2)

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The facets of job satisfaction levels can vary widely. People have generally been more satisfied with their jobs overall, the work itself, and their supervisors and coworkers than they have been with the pay and promotions.

Long Description:

The horizontal axis represents the parameters listed below. The vertical axis represents the percentage and ranges from 0 to 100, in increments of 10.

Approximate data corresponding to the average satisfaction levels are as follows:

Work Itself: 77 percent

Co-workers: 70 percent

Supervision: 65 percent

Pay: 58 percent

Promotion: 21 percent

Overall: 78 percent.

13

Average Levels of Employee Job Satisfaction by Country (Exhibit 3-3)

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

The results of the 2017 World Happiness Report indicate that over 70% of employees in the 20 largest economies are satisfied with their jobs.

Long Description:

The horizontal axis represents the various countries listed below. The vertical axis represents the percentage from 0 to 100, in increments of 10.

Data corresponding to the countries and percentage are summarized below:

Netherlands: 93.8

Switzerland: 93.7

Canada: 90.5

Germany: 90.4

Australia: 89.2

Spain: 88.1

United Kingdom: 87.4

France: 86.0

Saudi Arabia: 85.7

Brazil: 85.6

Italy: 85.5

United States of America: 85.3

Mexico: 82.4

Turkey: 74.9

Russia: 74.6

Japan: 74.0

South Korea: 74.0

Indonesia: 73.3

India: 71.5

China: 71.4.

14

What Causes Job Satisfaction? Learning Objective 3.5

Job Conditions

Personality

Pay

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)

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Some of the characteristics that are likely to influence job satisfaction include the job conditions, personality, pay, and corporate social responsibility.

We examine each of these.

15

Job Conditions

The intrinsic nature of the work itself

Social interactions

Supervision

Big role

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Interesting jobs that provide training, variety, independence, and control satisfy most employees. Interdependence, feedback, social support, and positive interactions with coworkers are strongly related to job satisfaction. Managers play a big role in employees’ job satisfaction.

Toxic environments lead to dissatisfied employees.

16

Personality

Positive core self-evaluations (CSEs)

Believe in their inner worth and basic competence

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Personality also plays an important role in job satisfaction. Those individuals who have a positive core self-evaluation (CSE) are more satisfied with their jobs than those with negative CSEs.

17

Pay

Pay

after individual reaches a level of comfortable living, the effect can be smaller

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Pay has an influence on job satisfaction (and overall happiness), but not as much as one might think. Typically, once a worker reaches a standard level of comfortable living, pay has a smaller impact on satisfaction.

18

Corporate Social Responsibility

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)

an organization’s self-regulated actions to benefit society or the environment beyond legal requirements

it’s good for the planet and good for people

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Corporate social responsibility (CSR) reflects an organization’s self-regulated actions to benefit society or the environment beyond legal requirements. CSR plays a role in job satisfaction, especially for younger generations. CSR allows employees to serve a higher purpose. In general, if an employee’s personal values fit with those of the organization, the employee is usually satisfied.

19

Outcomes of Job Satisfaction Learning Objective 3.6

Better job and organizational performance

Better organizational citizenship behaviors

Greater levels of customer satisfaction

Improved life satisfaction

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When employees are satisfied with their work, there are many positive outcomes in the workplace.

Job satisfaction is moderately correlated with OCB; people who are more satisfied with their jobs are more likely to engage in citizenship behavior. (These are discretionary behaviors that contribute to organizational effectiveness but are not part of employees’ formal job description.)

Satisfied workers tend to have stronger performance and are more in tune with the organization’s mission and goals. As a result of that they tend to serve customers better, which translates into strong customer satisfaction.

Evidence has suggested that job satisfaction and life satisfaction mutually influence one another. For most individuals, work is an important part of life, and therefore overall happiness depends in part on our happiness in our work.

20

The Impact of Job Dissatisfaction Learning Objective 3.7

Exit: directs behavior toward leaving the organization

Voice: includes actively and constructively attempting to improve conditions

Loyalty: passively but optimistically waiting for conditions to improve

Neglect: passively allows conditions to worsen

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When employees are dissatisfied with their jobs, they have four basic responses they can utilize. These options are divided into active and passive choices. The active options are exit and voice. If employees select to exit, they choose to leave or move in a direction of leaving the organization. In voice, the employees will work toward active and constructive attempts to improve conditions. The passive options are neglect and loyalty. Employees may choose to neglect their work and just allow conditions to worsen, or they may choose to remain loyal to the organization and just wait for change.

21

Counterproductive Work Behavior

Counterproductive Work Behavior (CWB)

Actions that actively damage the organization

deviant behavior in the workplace, or simply withdrawal behavior

Job dissatisfaction predicts CWB

Absenteeism

Turnover

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Counterproductive work behaviors are those that actively damage the organization. Managers can try to mitigate CWB, using techniques such as polling to find out about employee attitudes. Avoiding mismatches between the job and the employee’s abilities and values should increase job satisfaction.

Dissatisfied workers are more likely to cause problems in the workplace by stealing, being absent more frequently, limiting productivity, and other negative work outcomes. Unsatisfied employees tend to be absent more often when numerous alternative jobs are available.

Satisfied workers remain in the job for a longer period of time than dissatisfied workers. However, as we have seen recently, workers are willing to stay in jobs where they are not satisfied because the job market is tight due to tough economic conditions. A pattern of lowered job satisfaction is the best predictor of intent to leave.

22

Managers Often “Don’t Get It”

Job satisfaction can impact the bottom line

Be careful of overestimating job satisfaction

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If job attitudes are as important as we believe, organizations need to use every reasonable method to determine how they can be improved. Surveys can be very helpful.

Some organizations overestimate how satisfied employees are, so they do not think there is a problem when there is one.

23

Implications for Managers

Remember that an employee’s job satisfaction level is the best single predictor of behavior.

Pay attention to your employees’ job satisfaction levels as determinants of their performance, turnover, absenteeism, and withdrawal behaviors.

Measure employee job attitudes objectively and at regular intervals in order to determine how employees are reacting to their work.

To raise employee satisfaction, evaluate the fit between the employee’s work interests and the intrinsic parts of the job to create work that is challenging and interesting to the individual.

Consider the fact that high pay alone is unlikely to create a satisfying work environment.

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Remember that an employee’s job satisfaction level is the best single predictor of behavior.

Pay attention to your employees’ job satisfaction levels as determinants of their performance, turnover, absenteeism, and withdrawal behaviors.

Measure employee job attitudes objectively and at regular intervals in order to determine how employees are reacting to their work.

To raise employee satisfaction, evaluate the fit between the employee’s work interests and the intrinsic parts of the job to create work that is challenging and interesting to the individual.

Consider the fact that high pay alone is unlikely to create a satisfying work environment.

24

Discussion Questions

Does your organization survey employees to determine job satisfaction levels? Why or why not? If your organization does survey employees, what does your organization do to respond to the results of the survey?

There is a growing focus on the role of CSR for younger generations. Do you think this is unique to just younger generations? Why?

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Copyright

This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors in teaching their courses and assessing student learning. Dissemination or sale of any part of this work (including on the World Wide Web) will destroy the integrity of the work and is not permitted. The work and materials from it should never be made available to students except by instructors using the accompanying text in their classes. All recipients of this work are expected to abide by these restrictions and to honor the intended pedagogical purposes and the needs of other instructors who rely on these materials.

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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