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You will keep notes about the course content in your Blackboard journal. Try to answer the following questions in each of your journal


You will keep notes about the course content in your Blackboard journal.  Try to answer the following questions in each of your journal

 You will keep notes about the course content in your Blackboard journal. 

Try to answer the following questions in each of your journal entries:

  • What interested you the most in the week’s course content? Why?
  • What about the concepts discussed this week? (use the syllabus, course schedule, to see each week’s concepts). Did they help you understand the historical process better, or not? How come? Comment on at least one concept and related event/process discussed in the textbook or lectures.
  • What event, concept, or historical process remained unclear to you? Why?
  • How do you evaluate your learning process about world history so far?

READ THE LECTURE NOTES BELOW

COMPLETE THE JOURNAL BASED ON THE QUESTIONS ABOVE

AT LEAST 700 WORDS

The Great Depression History 111 – World History since 1500

Spring 2022

Jorge Minella ([email protected])

Post-World War One

 Total war had become a reality.

 Mass mobilization.

 Postwar.

 Democratic potential.

 Economic recovery.

 Expectation of enduring peace.

Optimist 1920s, but…

 Fascism in Italy.

 Totalitarianism on the horizon.

 Continued unrest in the colonies.

 Great Depression coming up.

 Would lead millions into unemployment and poverty.

This Class

 Great Depression, 1929 to late 1930s.

 Causes.

 Social Effects.

 Political outcomes.

 Road to war.

Economic Crises

 Interconnected economies.

 Global supply and consumer chains.

 Collateral effects.

 1870s Long Recession.

 Known as The Great Depression until the 1930s crisis came by.

 What caused the 1930s Great Depression?

 Started with the November 1929 stock market collapse in the United States.

The U.S. Stock Market Crash  1920s stock market party.

 Investors took loans to buy stock.

 Excessive credit restricted in 1929.

 Banks collecting outstanding loans.

 Investors selling stock to pay back loans.

 Stock prices plumet.

 Investor lose money; many can’t pay back loans.

A solemn crowd gathers outside the NY Stock Exchange after the crash. 1929.

Global Effects

 U.S. banks had financed postwar economic growth abroad.

 Sought to collect debt abroad following the crash.

 Businesses unable to pay back.

 Bankruptcy and workers laid off.

 Massive unemployment.

 Particularly in Europe.

Overproduction

 Agricultural overproduction.

 Prices collapse.

 Rural areas across the globe severely affected.

 Which decreased demand for manufactured goods.

 Many industries affected.

 Bankruptcies and unemployment.

Soup kitchen to feed the unemployed in Chile, 1932.

Ineffective or Costly Early Responses

 Currency depreciation, protectionism, budget cuts.

 No results, or worsened the situation.

 Increased taxation of the colonies.

 Efforts of industrialization in Latin America and Eastern Europe.

 Government purchase of excess production.

Burning of excess coffee grains in Brazil, 1931.

Social Effects

 Not all negative: people with jobs could benefit from lower prices.

 Hardship, poverty, hunger.

 Disruption of family ties.

 Rising protests.  Communist parties grew.

 Unions took to the streets.

 Government and private repression.

In the Colonies…

 More taxation and repression.

 More protest.

 E.g. Mohandas Gandhi Salt March, India, 1930.

 Non-Violent Civil Disobedience.

 General strikes in Palestine and India.

 Peasant Uprising in Indochina.

 Harsh repression against demands of colonial subjects.

Gandhi during the Salt March, March 1930

Political Outcomes of the The Great Depression

General Political Changes

 Fall of representative governments.

 Countries in Europe, Latin America, and Asia.

 New authoritarian regimes.

 New totalitarian regimes.

 Fascist, Nazi, Communist regimes in the 1930s.

 Sought to establish total state control of society.

Fascist Italy

 Established before the Great Depression (1922)

 Fascism.

 Primacy of the state over the individual.

 Violence and warfare to make nations strong.

 Mussolini.

 Blamed the parliament.

 “Blackshirt” army.

Blackshirts with Benito Mussolini during the March on Rome, 28 October 1922.

The Nazi Party in Germany

 Facilitated by the defeat in WW1 and the Great Depression.

 Resentment.

 Unemployment and poverty.

 Youth, white-collar workers, and lower middle class as early supporters.

 Jews blamed for Germany’s problems.

 All the opposition to totalitarianism labeled “Bolshevik”.

The Nazi Rise to Power

 Support of military, industrial, and sectors of the political elite.

 Saw the Nazis as a defense against communism.

 Shared Nazi anti-Semitism.

 Adolf Hitler chancellor by 1933.

 Totalitarian escalation.

 Targeted Jews, Communists, homosexuals, labor activists, political opposition.

Nazi Racism

 Major component of Nazi Ideology.

 Superiority of “Aryans”.

 Everyone else seen as an obstacle to “pure” German growth.

 Particularly Jews and Slavs.

 1935 Nuremberg Laws (Anti-Jewish legislation).

 1938 Night of Broken Glass.

Passersby and a damaged Jewish-owned shop following the Night of Broken Glass. Magdeburg, Germany, 1938.

Support for the Nazi Totalitarian Regime

 Economic recovery.

 Jobs and property taken from Jewish families.

 Heavy public investment in infrastructure and military industry.

 Decreased unemployment.

 Widespread propaganda.

 Demonized Jews, Communists, labor activists, and others.

 Many Germans convinced Nazism was saving Germany from evil-doers.

Nazi Propaganda Poster, “He is to blame for the war!” by Hans Schweitzer.

Japan

 Earthquake + Effects of the Great Depression.

 Military leaders and Emperor Hirohito.

 Militarization.

 Expansionism.

 Built support by claiming Japanese superiority over neighboring nations.

 Particularly China.

 Manchuria taken in 1931; League of Nations did not help China.

Democracies’ Alternatives

 Bold social and economic experiments in response to the Great Depression.

 United States.

 Public economic relief, price support, and investment in infrastructure.

 Social Security.

 Sweden.

 Universal Social Welfare State.

 Policies that sought to rescue people from desperation, therefore strengthening democracy.

  • The Great Depression
  • Post-World War One
  • Optimist 1920s, but…
  • This Class
  • The Great Depression
  • Economic Crises
  • The U.S. Stock Market Crash
  • Global Effects
  • Overproduction
  • Ineffective or Costly Early Responses
  • Social Effects
  • In the Colonies…
  • Political Outcomes of the The Great Depression
  • General Political Changes
  • Fascist Italy
  • The Nazi Party in Germany
  • The Nazi Rise to Power
  • Nazi Racism
  • Support for the Nazi Totalitarian Regime
  • Japan
  • Democracies’ Alternatives

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