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Your completed Final Project by reviewing and editing your Assignments to create a cohesive paper. Add an Introduction and Rationale for the study.


Your completed Final Project by reviewing and editing your Assignments to create a cohesive paper. Add an Introduction and Rationale for the study.

 I have attached all of my pervious papers that needs to make this current paper. 

So far in this course, you have developed all of the parts (I will attach al of the papers)  of your Final Project and have analyzed the key points for each element for your Executive Summary. 

Assignment:

 your completed Final Project by reviewing and editing your Assignments to create a cohesive paper. Add an Introduction and Rationale for the study. Your Final Project should be 4–6 pages in length.

Note: This is not a “cut and paste exercise.” During the term, you have developed all of the groundwork for your Final Project, but now you must create a cohesive document. For example, although stakeholders may be mentioned, it would not be necessary—and could be unwise—to include all of the detail that may have been considered in the design phase. As another example, simply pasting in the logic model with no explanation would not prove enlightening for any reader who is unfamiliar with the logic model process.

Below, you will find an outline of topics that should be addressed in your Final Project. You are not required to exactly follow this outline; however, you must be certain that each component is clearly addressed in your final design.

Although your project for this course is only a design document and not a full report, you will find it useful to review your Learning Resources. Many of the same points and principles apply equally well at the research design stage.

Your Final Project will include the following elements:

  • Problem definition and intervention description
  • Logic model or logframe
  • Development of indicators
  • Data collection strategy
  • Evaluation design, needs assessment, or formative or summative impact evaluation
  • Data analysis strategy
  • Stakeholder requirements

4

Evaluability Assessment

Eemonne’y Stewart

Walden University

Introduction

An evaluability assessment refers to the process that is used in the determination of whether a certain program is feasible, justifiable or capable of producing useful information. A big proportion of the people who are incarcerated in the US will be released into the communities at some point and these people face various challenges when they get out of prison such as substance abuse, psychological disorders, homelessness and lack of employment. The second chance act is an act which was enacted for the purpose of lowering the rate of recidivism and increasing public safety. This paper focuses on conducting an evaluability assessment of this act and examine the success stories.

Evaluability Assessment

There are very high chances of recidivism among the people who leave prison and this is particularly because most people do not feel that they are accepted back into the community. The people who are release from prisons have a very hard time adjusting their life back into the community. The second chance act has grants and various success stories of how they have helped ex-prisoners get their life back on track.

One of the success stories is about Roca Inc. which is a Massachusetts-based non-profit organization that works with high risk youth. “The organization received a Second chance Act mentoring grant to help organize and coordinate mentoring services to help young adults between the ages of 18 to 24 years who are involved in gangs who have substance abuse issues” (Mentoring gang-involved youth: How Roca, Inc. combines mentoring and services in a high-risk intervention model. 2019). Springfield Community Mentoring Project (SCMP) recognizes that most of these individuals lack the support needed to help mold them to become better people in the community. SCMP provides three types of mentors for the young adults to help in their successful transition back to the community.

Looking at the efforts which Roca Inc. puts into transforming the young adults we can see that Second Chance Act grants are indeed useful and have the capability to transform the communities. This is because most of the people fail because they lack support but through mentorships people are able to transit smoothly back into the communities. One type of the mentors which are provided is the transitional employment workplace mentors. With this type of mentors, the young adults can be coached and guided on how they can survive in the workplace despite the various challenges which they will encounter in the workplace. Transitional employment opportunities are hard to come by but SCMP offers transitional employment programs that give the individuals the chance to be hired.

Looking at the Roca Inc. case we can see how SCMP is understanding to youths. Instead of the youths being kicked out of the program when they fail at certain jobs, they are re enrolled in the program. SCMP gives them an opportunity to go into vocational training when they fail in a certain job where they are given access to various skills after which they can be re-hired through the program. Overall, looking at the type of grants which are offered by Second Chance Act, it is effective in helping make the transition to the community easier for the people who have been incarcerated before. Through giving them a chance to get employment and get help for substance abuse and mental health issues the act helps lower the chances of the people going back to the prison.

Conclusion

After an evaluation assessment of the Second Chance Act and the success stories, the act is effective in helping lower the rate of recidivism and this is because it addresses some important issues which affect people who have been incarcerated and are moving back to the community. The act should be supported by more organizations to help more people.

References

Mentoring gang-involved youth: How Roca, Inc. combines mentoring and services in a high-

risk intervention model. CSG Justice Center. (2019, November 9). Retrieved March 10, 2022, from https://csgjusticecenter.org/2013/10/16/mentoring-gang-involved-youth-how-roca-inc-combines-mentoring-and-services-in-a-high-risk-intervention-model/

The second chance act (fact sheet). CSG Justice Center. (2020, February 7). Retrieved March

10, 2022, from https://csgjusticecenter.org/publications/fact-sheet-the-second-chance-act/

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Logical Frame 4

Logical frame

Walden University

Eemonne’y Stewart

03/17/2022

Problem Statement

There has been increased prevalence and incidence of juvenile sex offences despite presence of strategies put in place to control the crimes. Therefore, there is a need to determine whether the systems put in place to control the juvenile sex offenses are effective enough. This is necessary in determine whether additional policies and strategies are necessary in controlling the offences.

Goal

To determine the effectiveness of rehabilitation centers, juvenile prisons and healthcare facilities in controlling juvenile sex offenses.

Rationales

This study is necessary in addressing a persistent problem in the modern society. It becomes a serious concern when there is deterioration of a crisis in the society despite presence of efforts to control the vice. This even becomes worse of the vice is affecting future growth and development of the society. This is what juvenile sex offences poses to the modern society. Despite the presence of strategies to combat the crime, there is still an increase in the rate of occurrence of juvenile sex offenses in the modern society across the world. For this reason, there is a need to determine whether the current strategies are effective in reducing and eliminating the vice or whether the responsible authorities should develop new strategies.

Resources

Peer-reviewed scholarly articles.

Data from research and census.

Case studies.

Video Recordings.

Activities

Document analysis

Video analysis and recording.

Appraisal of the sources to shortlist them.

Outputs

Research notes.

Transcription summaries.

Photographs.

Outcomes

A defined relationship between the independent variables: juvenile prisons, rehabilitation centers and healthcare facilities.

After the research, a conclusion will be made on whether the outlined strategies are effective enough in controlling and combating juvenile sex offenses.

Reliable information will be available which can be used by policy makers in controlling the rising rate of occurrence of juvenile sex offenses.

External factors

Regulatory laws: The research must ne conducted in relation to the Human Subject Protection Federal Regulatory Framework. This is aimed at ensuring there is compliance with the law. Among the considerations to be made in the study include informed consent of human subjects (Ertas, 2019).

Reference

Ertas, N. (2019). How to Conduct a Narrative Policy Framework Study to Examine Whether Policy Narratives Change Public Opinions. SAGE Publications Ltd.

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Initial Evaluation Design: National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI)

Eemonne’y Stewart

Walden University

Professor Lum

March 23rd, 2022

An evaluation design is meant to address any quantitative, qualitative, or any other mixed form of method evaluation. Generally, an evaluation design is meant to address a structure that was created initially to create or produce an unbiased appraisal that would greatly affect the program’s benefits. However, the decision for an evaluation design is meant to address any questions as well as depending on how to meet its standards of effectiveness. Also, a degree of precision is mandatory as well as the active and available resources which would dictate the success of the same. Typically, an evaluation design addresses how a systematic method of studying a program, practice, or any form of policy in understanding how it meets its goals and how it helps the intended populations towards achieving a common good.

The National Alliance on Mental Illness has been dedicated to building better lives for the millions of Americans who have mental health issues and that all can be dedicated to being the nation’s largest grassroots. To implement an evaluation design of the NAMI organization, then it is key to address what exactly needs to be evaluated in the organization, after making up minds on what can be engaged, stakeholders should be informed of the same. Access to resources and evaluability is made possible by the stakeholders who promote the general evaluation plan. Determining evaluation questions that can be used in the NAMI case study would help towards steering the goal. Appropriate methods are to be chosen to address the evaluation plan and in addressing any need. Collecting appropriate data would follow in that it would help in addressing the issues themselves and in analyzing the results of the evaluation design of the program (Langbein, 2012).  NAMI has been ranked among the topmost charitable organizations and it is successful in charitable spending as well as fundraising practices. It is a reliable source such that its website houses lots of information based on contacts, resources, and other community support methods. In this case, the ETS Program under NAMI has to be evaluated on its success such that it has not yet reflected in the success of its objective by a good percentage based on responses by participants.

To address validity threats in such cases, the experimental design could be altered to counter many of the threats in group studies. In minimizing validity threats, then evidence must be generated through any of the intervention research. Controls are needed in maintaining internal validity like such research designs. This can be managed in NAMI through implementing several ways such as elimination, manipulation, inclusion, and randomization strategies. Validity is addressed during the first initial stages in that it accounts for ensuring any of the methods and techniques addressed are of high quality and that each is targeted to measure what one wants to know specifically and address effectively (McDavid, Huse, & Hawthorn, 2019). Based on existing knowledge about the policy itself and its overall functioning what can be addressed best is based on the existing knowledge about the firm and how it is successful in meeting its goals towards ending mental health illness.

References

Langbein, L. (2012). Public program evaluation: A statistical guide (2nd ed.). Armonk, NY: ME Sharpe.

McDavid, J. C., Huse, I., & Hawthorn, L. R. L. (2019). Program evaluation and performance measurement: An introduction to practice (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

http://www.gao.gov/assets/590/588146.pdf

Home: Nami: National Alliance on Mental Illness. NAMI. (n.d.). Retrieved March 23, 2022, from https://www.nami.org/Home

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Indicator construction 4

Indicator Construction

Walden University

Eemonne’y Stewart

March 29th, 2022

Variables and Data:

The variables used in the project will be derived from the goal and focus point of the project. One of the variables is juvenile justice system. This is a crucial variable in conducting the search in that it will serve as a filter in ensuring the data obtained is relevant to the major issues of discussion in the project. Also, the use of juvenile justice system will assist in separating other contents related to overall rehabilitation centers and criminal rehabilitation. The second variable that will be used in the project is female offenders. This will be used in ensuring the data obtained from the sources does not discuss other genders or other types of offenders. The main aim of using the variable is ensuring the sources and data collected is consistent with the main focus point of the study.

There are two main types of data that will be used in the project. The first type of data used in the project is primary data. This involves data that is collected from directly from the main source (Prada-Ramallal et al, 2018). This will occur through in-person conversations and interviews. However, the interviews will focus at seeking guidance from a stakeholder in the correctional system to understand the most viable approach to use in collecting data relating to juvenile justice system. The second type of data to be used in the project is secondary data. This will be the main type of data that will be relied upon in the study. This refers to data that has been recorded either in documents or various forms of media such as audio and video. Secondary data is considered most reliable and convenient in this case in that it will allow thorough analysis and comparison of data to get the most refined version of data.

Availability of Research Data:

Research data that will be used in the project is easily available in research databases. There are two main primary databases that contains millions of criminal justice articles and related media. The research databases include the ProQuest Criminal Justice and Criminal Justice Abstracts. The two databases are easy to navigate through in that they offer the users to search the content based on key words. The key words appropriate for the search include ‘juvenile justice system’, ‘female offenders challenges’, ‘female offenders’ or even typing the combination of all the variables to get a more refined search. In this case, the search phrase will be ‘female offenders in juvenile justice system’.

Data Collection Strategy:

Random sampling will be used in selecting sample size from which data will be collected. Random sampling is preferred for this study because it ensures there is pure representation or elimination of bias in selection of sample units (Mancini et al, 2021). This will be used in selecting the documents and media sources from which data will be collected. At first, secondary sources of data will be obtained from the databases based on the key words or variable highlighted. Then, an appraisal will be conducted based on the search concept ‘female offender challenges in juvenile justice systems. This will enable a shorter list of articles and media to be generated from the database. It is in this list that random sampling will be used to select sample units. Document analysis and video analysis will be used in collecting data from the sources sampled after which data will be recorded.

Reference:

Mancini, T., Melatti, I., & Tronci, E. (2021). Any-horizon uniform random sampling and enumeration of constrained scenarios for simulation-based formal verification. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering.

Prada-Ramallal, G., Roque, F., Herdeiro, M. T., Takkouche, B., & Figueiras, A. (2018). Primary versus secondary source of data in observational studies and heterogeneity in meta-analyses of drug effects: a survey of major medical journals. BMC medical research methodology18(1), 1-14.

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Quantitative Design 5

Quantitative Design

Walden University

Eemonne’y Stewart

April 8, 2022

Selecting Treatment and Control Groups

A systematic process will be followed in selecting control and treatment group. The main aim of a control group is to use it in establishing a cause-and-effect relationship which is attained through isolation of an independent variable. In selecting a treatment group, the main determinant will be determined by the desired outcome or results from the study. In the treatment group, an alteration will be done on the independent variable, whereas in the control group, it remains unchanged. These groups’ outcomes are then compared to each other. This means that any change in the dependent variable can be attributed to the independent variable when a control group is used. The therapy can take any shape that the experimenters choose, and the specifics will vary depending on the study’s objectives. It could be a novel drug or therapy that is being tested in a clinical trial. Some people may benefit from a new social policy, according to researchers in the field of public policy. All factors except the treatment should always be kept constant between both the two groups in a well-designed experiment. This ensures that the treatment’s full impact may be accurately assessed without the influence of potentially skewing variables (Sherman, 2020).

Addressing Selection Bias

Use of the same local community is one of the reliable techniques that can be used in addressing selection bias in a quasi-experiment. A quasi experiment as used in this context means the aim of the study is to determine a cause and effect relationship. With the use of a similar local community as the source of data for both the comparison groups and interventions, there is reduced chances of existence od predestined data to provide meaningful information from the data collected. This may occur when there are different classes of data or different community which have varied characteristics and which might have been selected based on bias.

Also, selection bias can be eliminated in the quasi experiment with the use of random controlled trials. This technique ensures the units or participants in the study are not biased or selected based on predetermined factors. By nature, this tool is considered more effective in that the researcher is not aware of the causality or not. It enhances pure representation of the population by representing a varied nature and features of the participants (Li et al, 2022).

Addressing Internal Validity in Nonexperimental Design

Correlational research has the lowest level of internal validity because it does not use any form of manipulation or control in its experiments. When a researcher is convinced that a cause-and-effect link identified in a study cannot be explained by other factors, they are said to have high levels of internal validity. Some, but not all of the qualities of a true experiment can be found in quasi-experimental research. A non-experimental design is a study design in which an experimenter just describes a group or explores the relationships between preexisting groups. A causal relationship’s results are internally legitimate if they can be believed and trusted. An experiment cannot prove a causal connection between two variables unless it has a high degree of internal validity.

Whether or if there is a study with a single group or numerous groups will have an impact on how internal validity is addressed. There are two main interventions that can be employed in a single-group study. Add a control group to address all hazards to single-group research by introducing a comparable control group It is impossible for the results of the study to be influenced by the dangers faced by both control and treatment groups. Select a big sample size for the second step. Test results would be more susceptible to error if the sample size was too large. Random assignment of participants to groups can be employed in multiple-group studies to offset selection bias and regression to the mean by ensuring groups comparable at the start of the investigation (Roberts, 2021). 

Reference:

Li, F., Tian, Z., Bobb, J., Papadogeorgou, G., & Li, F. (2022). Clarifying selection bias in cluster randomized trials. Clinical Trials19(1), 33-41.

Roberts, D. R. (2021). Quantitative Non-Experimental Correlational Study: Determining Any Existence Between the Predictors of Workplace Violence (Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University).

Sherman, K. J. (2020). The trials and tribulations of selecting comparison groups in randomized trials of nonpharmacological complementary and integrative health interventions. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine26(6), 449-455.

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2

Mixed method

Walden University

Eemonne’y Stewart

April 20th, 2022

Mixed-Method Research in Criminal Justice is used for a variety of reasons. The wonderful thing about the research is that it can be done in a number of ways to get the information needed for projects. We’ll go through the ins and outs of doing mixed-methods research and how it may help you in this report. Let’s start by describing what this plan is meant to achieve. “Research in which the inquirer or investigator obtains and analyzes data, integrates the findings, and draws conclusions using both qualitative and quantitative techniques or procedures in a single study or program of research,” according to the definition of “Mixed Methodologies” research (Creswell, 2008).

According to this definition, using both qualitative and quantitative research approaches will bring the two strands of the study together in order to properly describe the research project’s results. Before trying to use a mixed-method approach successfully, it is vital to be conversant with both qualitative and quantitative approaches. You must first assess if a mixed-method research is possible. The next step is to figure out why you’re doing a mixed-methods research in the first place. Finally, you must decide on a data collecting approach, create quantitative, qualitative, and mixed-method questions, gather all necessary data, evaluate the data, and prepare a report based on your results. The purpose of integrating quantitative and qualitative data is to get a more comprehensive understanding of your research issue than you could get from either kind of data alone.

You won’t be able to address the research problem or produce a satisfactory answer to the study’s questions if you just use one kind of research methodology; both approaches are required to go from one phase of the research to the next. One of the most important factors to undertake when choosing a mixed-method research design is the level of interaction between qualitative and quantitative methodologies. Because everyone is different and uses different research approaches, the usefulness of one methodology against another may be questioned.

The outcomes of studies that lean towards a given strategy may be prejudiced in their conclusions unless special alterations are made to accommodate for the technique. Despite the fact that some individuals believe that more is better, this is not always the best approach. “Despite the potential for each of these approaches to contribute to the creation of innovative mixed methods means, procedures, and measures, their usage is constrained” (Wheeldon, 2010).

A hybrid technique has the benefit of allowing for greater research extension than would be achievable with a single method. It broadens the scope of the investigation and makes it possible to conduct a more thorough probe. To put it another way, there is just more data to investigate today. A big benefit of employing a mixed-method approach to research is the ability to match the study’s purpose to the need revealed in the study. The following elements influence the ability to combine multiple methodologies: “First and foremost, the two methods may be combined since they both try to describe the reality in which we live and hence have many similarities. Both adhere to the principles of theory-ladenness of facts, fallibility of knowledge, indeterminacy of theory by fact, and a value-laden inquiry process, which are two grounds for thinking the two paradigms are compatible ” (Sale, 2002).

Prior to anything else, using a mixed-method approach will increase the overall quality of the study by improving the clarity and accuracy of the results. Mixed methods research has a number of benefits, including the ability to add meaning to numbers using words, pictures, and any narrative; the ability to develop and test a grounded theory; and the ability to address and answer a greater number of broader and more complete research questions because they are not limited to a single approach. These benefits may be used by the researcher to overcome the constraints of any other method already in use. If the findings are in accord and confirmed with one another, it may provide a stronger sort of evidence for the conclusion. It may bring extra insight and understanding into what could be ignored if just one technique is used.

Reference:

Wheeldon, J. (2010). Mapping mixed methods research: Methods, measures, and meaning. Journal of Mixed Methods Research,4(87), Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/376903/

Wheeldon_J._2010_Mapping_Mixed_Methods_Research_Methods_Measures_and_MeaningSale, J. (2002). Revisiting the quantitative-qualitative debate: Implications for mixed-methods research. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy1.apus.edu/docview/786638154?pq-origsite=summon

Creswell, J. (2008). Mixed methods research. The Sage Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods, 527-530. Retrieved from http://yw6vq3kb9d.search.serialssolutions.com/?ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&ctx_enc=info:ofi/enc:UTF 8&rfr_id=info:sid/summon.serialssolutions.com&rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:book&rft.genre=book item&rft.title=The SAGE Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods&rft.atitle=Journal of Mixed Methods Research&rft.date=2008-01-01&rft.pub=Sage Publications&rft.isbn=9781412941631&rft.externalDocID=9554045¶mdict=en-U

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2

Data Analysis Techniques

Eemonne’y Stewart

Walden University

April 25, 2022

· Explain whether you will be using significance tests or multivariate techniques such as regression in your Final Project. Explain your reasoning.

For the final project getting to the accurate results would be the outmost effort I would have to work to achieve. It is evident the final project is complex and there are a series of variables that would have to get extensively looked into for the purpose of resulting to the right outcome. For this reason, instead of using significant tests, I would rather make use of multivariate techniques like regression among other. By so doing I would be able to consider the various necessary factors one at a time thereby making it easy to understand the entire project despite its complexity.

· Explain the considerations you have made relative to techniques of analysis.

Some of the considerations I would have to make relative to the technique of analysis include; the practicability of the technique, overall result of the project and the ability of the technique to make all factors easy to understand in terms of how they affect the project. All these considerations are important since for a project to succeed, one would require understanding all factors in details and making sure they have been handled exclusively. It is a situation that would avoid some important factors being left unhandled a situation that can easily compromise project’s final result. Additionally, the practicality of the technique helps in ensuring that the selected technique can be applied in the final project without challenges and deliver positive results. Moreover, it is the high levels of practicality that makes it possible for the right allocated time to be enough for the project. The harder the technique, the more time would be needed to resolve the problem.

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2

Qualitative Analysis

Eemonne’y Stewart

Walden University

April 29th, 2022

It is essential to investigate the many data analysis techniques accessible in order to determine wheth

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